Friday, May 22, 2020
Current and Future Trends of the Developments and Advancement in Telecommunications Free Essay Example, 1750 words
The white paper published by Cisco (2011) has emphasized current trends that continue to shape the work setting including increasing applications of video communications, mobile communications and the continuing upgrades to the use of smartphones in varied work endeavors. This was corroborated by Gill, Kamath, Gill (2012) who closely evaluated the use and impact of smartphones in the health care environment. The authors cited a Gartner study which revealed that by 2012, the top ten smartphone apps would include money transfer, location-based services, search, browsing, health monitoring, mobile payment, near-field communication service, advertising, Internet messaging, and music . In health care, smartphones were noted to be significantly used in the areas of providing health information to patients, continued access and connectivity to health practitioners, scheduling for medical appointments or medical examinations, to name a few. However, despite the apparent benefits, Gill, Kam ath, Gill (2012) have likewise revealed that the use of smartphones in the healthcare setting poses risks, threats and safety issues for health care practitioners who are using these and also to their patients. From among the negative effects noted from smartphone use include: exposure and possible contamination from bacteria-laden smartphones, especially in high-risk areas, to wit: a study conducted at a health care organization in Ireland to test the bacteria-carrying potential of cellular phones showed that, of the 70% cellular phones tested for bacteria that could cause infection, 96% were contaminated and 15% had bacteria known to cause healthcare-associated infections .We will write a custom essay sample on Current and Future Trends of the Developments and Advancement in Telecommunications or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Overall, it is recognized that the significant changes and transformations in the telecommunications environment have affected contemporary work settings in terms of the need to re-evaluate current strategies, plans, internal competencies, and weaknesses.
Friday, May 8, 2020
The management style of the teacher sets the tone for the learning environment. I believe students can be taught to self-discipline. Most students are naturally good, and with the right management plan being implemented by the teacher they can be conditioned to be idea students. Students should be viewed as being equals in the learning environment. Students should not be considered subordinates within the classroom who have little to nothing to add to the principles and rules adopted by the teacher to govern the class. Consequently, I believe in establishing a democratic classroom. Teachers should give students the responsibility to, in a sense, take over the classroom and their learning. As William Glasser states in his Control Theory , the only person with the ability to change the behavior of a human is that human. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to establish an environment where students are aware of their actions and the consequences of their actions. This type of management plan holds the students semi-responsible for their behavior and safety. Classroom management is a community affair between the students and the teacher. As an educator, I view myself as being a democratic teacher. IÃ¢â¬â¢m assertive and understandable. I believe in establishing an environment where the students have values, respect, trust, and a drive from within. Therefore, I see my management role as being a collaborative process with the students, parents,Show MoreRelatedEssay on Classroom Leadership: Field Experience Analysis1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEffective leaders and teachers understand how students learn, classroom designs, and teacher strategies enhance student learning. The theoretical underpinnings of successful classroom management stem from many factors to construct a learning environment. Students come into the classrooms, according to Levy (2008), with different personalities, abilities, and learning styles. Educators instruct all learners to meet the standards for their district and state. The observation of school mission willRead MoreTeaching Philosophy: Encouragement Essay595 Words Ã |Ã 3 P agespurposes of education are varies. The principle changes with age, environment, and the customs of the individual student. The instructions good for one may not be good for another. Kindergarten has a totally different set of priorities than middle school students. Middle school students have a totally different set of priorities than High school students. I would love to teach a diverse group of students, including those with learning disabilities, those who perform at grade level, and those who areRead MoreLearning Theories That Can Be Understood And Enforced By Administrators1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescourse work. The thing to remember about learning is that it is ever changing. Teachers must adapt in order to accommodate the new learning styles presented throughout a period of time. 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Learning Theories For years, there haveRead MoreClassroom Management And The Classroom1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesClassroom management refers to methods applied by an educator to ensure that students remain organized, attentive, and focused throughout a class in a productive way. StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s discipline has for a long time been considered as the ultimate measure of a well-managed class which is false since classroom management is dependent on a compound of factors as opposed to a single factor (Cangelosi, 2014). Given that students and teachers spend a considerable amount of time in the classroom, itÃ¢â¬â¢s essentialRead MorePersonal Statement On Self Management Essay979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesphysically safe environment. It also necessitates establishing clear expectations, rules and procedures so students know what to do and when to do it, it requires advanced planning of pertinent, collaborative, and enjoyable lessons that challenge children to achieve their best work, and it begs the developm ent of fair and consistent relationships based on respect and understanding. I believe that teaching means recognizing each student as diverse and unique, with different learning styles and intelligencesRead MoreDeveloping A Strong Classroom Management Style1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesability to learn and achieve. Classroom management plays a major role in the effectiveness of education and paves the way for the teacher to engage students in learning. Classroom management creates a set of expectations, routines, rules, and consequences. Through my experience at Olson Elementary, I have had the privilege of observing Ms. Mason, her students, and how she addresses classroom management. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Blood Diamond is a movie that was cast by Leonardo DiCaprio, Djimon Hounsou and Jennifer Connelly and was directed by Edward ZwickÃ¢â¬â¢s. The movie was set in Sierra Leone Civil War in South Africa. The role of Hounsou was a fisherman while DiCarpio was a white mercenary gun smuggler that sells guns to rebellions in exchange of money while Connelly was an American journalist that wants to expose the illegal and mistreating of the diamond miners in Africa. We will write a custom essay sample on Precious Blood or any similar topic only for you Order Now Connelly was the only cast in the movie that has no intent on diamonds. (Burr, 2006) The movie was all about the quest of DiCarpio and Hounsou to reveal the pink diamond which they believe that the pink diamond will change their lives. Hounsou was a fisherman who was taken away from his family so that he can work in the diamond field. While in prison, DiCarpio found out that Hounsou had an idea of the pink diamond. The major quest of Hounsou was to find his family but found out that his family was in the hands of the United Nations. But the son of Hounsou was kidnapped by the diamond miner terrorist and was forced to become a child soldier. With this, the two men joined in finding the missing pink diamond because the said diamond will help Hounsou saves his family from the hands of the rebels while DiCarpio will find a second life. With the help of Connelly, the three will reveal the truth behind the issues surrounding the diamond industry in South Africa. (Burr, 2006) The story of Blood Diamond mirrors the reality of some country-the rebels using their resources in finding weapons that they can use against the government. Many countries are now experiencing this kind of problem and affect the performance of the government in serving its citizen. This is a positive side of the film because it tackles some of the major problems in countries, terrorism. The setting of the movie is perfect for the purpose, and message of the movie. It shows the lives of many African people and shows how sad are the lives of these Africans. The major casts of the movie play their role efficiently. Like Hounsou who played as a rebel kidnapped. As the quest begins in finding his son, the emotion as a father was seen on Hounsou. The movie Blood Diamond showed mistake in doing the film. First, is the scene were DiCarpio and Connelly share the wine and the rd cup they used appear and disappear with out explanation. Another movie mistakes is when the child soldiers were seen using a Game Boy Advance SP. The video game was released in the market on 2003 while the film was set in 1900s. Also, when Solomon was fishing in the morning, the sun rise over the sea which is contrast to reality that the sun rise over land. The Casts DiCarpio had a character that is flat and one dimensional only at the start of the movie. But as he entered to the real world of diamond industry in Sierra Leone, he became strong, and well rounded. At first, DiCarpio shows a virtue of a smuggler, a liar but as the movie goes; his brutal honesty reveals the illegal diamond business in Sierra Leone.Ã Hounsou shows was successful in making a character that is strong and is determined in regaining back his son from the diamond rebels. And sometimes, he induced anger, compassion and hopelessness. Ã Jennifer Connelly was a American journalist that seeks and wants to reveal the illegal diamond business in Sierra Leone. She cooperates with DiCarpio and Hounsou in her quest. The acting of the three major casts played their role in well. This is a good characteristic of the film because it shows the reality in South Africa. The film ends when Hounsou reveals to the people his experience in the diamond rebels and the illegal of the said business. The film was very interesting because it show to the audience what really happens in some part of the world. The producer of Blood Diamond would like to impart to the audience to become aware to this serious issue that will make a one step towards in minimizing these problems. Reference: Burr, T. (2006). Blood Diamond Movie Review [Electronic Version]. Retrieved May 25, 2007 from http://www.boston.com/movies/display?display=movieid=9301. How to cite Precious Blood, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Principals of Environmental Science Joshua Hammack ENV/100 February 4, 2013 Christopher Bertram Principals of Environmental Science Environmental science is the relationship between the earth and all living things and organisms that use the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to sustain life. Environmental science is also the ongoing study of the environment and all of its interconnected systems. The style of research performed by environmental scientists is very diverse. Also, environmental science is composed of many components such as geology, physics, social science, meteorology, and biology. Social science looks more at how humans and animals interact within the environment and the effects they have on one another. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental scientists try to establish general principles about how the natural world functions. They use these principles to develop viable solutions to environmental problemsÃ¢â¬âsolutions that are based as much as possible on scientific knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (M. C. , 2009). Technology and science affect the problems and solutions of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society both positively and negatively. We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Environmental Science or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Take for instance the invention of the car by Karl Friedrich Benz in 1885, (Bruno, 1997) while there was a demand for better transportation as people became more sophisticated and wanted to travel further than possible on a horse it created a demon for the environment to fight. Today, worldwide there are more than 1 billion passenger vehicles on the roadways, (Tencer, 2011) and with an increase in automobiles comes added pollution from oil, grease, petroleum, and rubber, but not only the cars produce pollution. The manufacturing does equal amounts of damage from steel mills, rubber plants and stamping plants. With growing population these numbers will begin to rise. At the same time the technologies that are contributing to the Worlds pollution problems are also being used to help solve the problem by creating means necessary to obtain valuable data to aid in the solution. For example studying marine life in the depths of the ocean would not be possible without using motorboats to reach these remote locations. The double edge sword being that the boat itself pollutes the water. Finding a balance between the neccessity of technology and the over consumption of technology is a slippery slope, but it is crucial to the sustainability of the environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Ecologist Garrett Hardin (1915Ã¢â¬â2003) is best known for his 1968 essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the Commons. Ã¢â¬ In it he contended that our inability to solve complex environmental problems is the result of a struggle between short-term individual welfare and long-term environmental sustainability, the ability to meet humanitys current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needsÃ¢â¬ (M. C. , 2009). It is essential that society studies the sustainability of our resources not only so they can be preserved, but to aid in the prediction of growth and evolution. Some countries like the US, Canada, Japan, and Europe are highly developed countries that are consuming the majority of the worlds sustainable consumption. As the under developed countries such as Haiti, yemen, and Sudan begin to grow they will take on a larger share of the sustainable consumption. Without monitoring the development from an environmental point of view the worlds population could literally eat themselves out of house and home. Ã¢â¬Å"Those who dont know history are doomed to repeat it. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âEdmund Burke. Looking back through history the United States has not always been the best stewards to the land. In fact, through many mistakes the lessons of Mother Nature have been ingrained into our culture. The concept of conservation and preservation was brought about by a group of men in the mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s through the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Benjamin Harrison (1833Ã¢â¬â1901), Grover Cleveland (1837Ã¢â¬â1908), William McKinley (1843Ã¢â¬â1901), and Theodore Roosevelt (1858Ã¢â¬â1919) were all the first to use the Forest Reserve Act, this act was put into affect in 1881 which gave the president the authority to establish forest reserves on public, federally owned land (M. C. , 2009). Before this the lands in the western United States were falling victim to deforestation with 160 billion board foot of lumber being cut from 1860, just after the Civil War to 1900. Throughout history the government has been very proactive in establishing programs to help preserve and protect the natural resources. Until 1970, the voice of the environmentalist was nothing but a whisper that was only heard through two organizations, the Sierra Club and the National Wildlife Federation (M. C. , 2009). When Denis Hays, a Harvard graduate student was influenced by a former Wisconsin senator to organize the first recognized Earth Day it bacame a gateway for informing the public on sustainability, consumption and what we needed to do to preserve our environment. Eventually Earth Day became a way to show people that their little contribution to reducing their carbon footprint as much as possible was magnified greatly when coupled with others efforts. Ã¢â¬Å"By Earth Day 1990, the movement had spread around the world, signaling the rapid growth in environmental consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (M. C. , 2009). In conclusion, it is inevitable that the world as a whole will continue to grow, the population will increase, and resources will be exhuasted. It is for that reason the human race must be aware of what is coming.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Differences Between AprÃ ¨s vs. DerriÃ ¨re and Avant vs. Devant AprÃ ¨s and Avant convey a notion of time or space. AprÃ ¨s refers to doing something after while Avant refers to doing something before. Je le retrouve aprÃ ¨s/avant le dÃ ©jeunerIll meet up with him after/before lunch AprÃ ¨s/avant le bois, il y a un cheminAfter/before the wood, there is a path Derriere and Devant convey a notion of precise space. Derrier refers to being behind something, or someone and Devant refers to being in front of something or someone. La petite fille est cachÃ ©e derriÃ ¨re larbreThe young girl is hidden behind the tree Pour la photo, comme tu es plus petite, va devant Camille.For the picture, since you are smaller, go in front of Camille.Ã DerriÃ ¨re le bois, il y a un cheminBehind the wood, there is a path AprÃ ¨s and DerriÃ ¨re Are Not Interchangeable So, what is the difference between the two sentences aprÃ ¨s le bois, il y a un chemin and derriÃ ¨re le bois, il y a un chemin? They both give a piece of space-related information, but one is more precise, just like in English. Same exact logic applies to avant versus devant. AprÃ ¨s Que Indicative / Avant Que Subjunctive A common mistake is AprÃ ¨s que plus a subjunctive. Its a very common mistake, even among French people, because honestly, the indicative sounds terrible there. Avant que is followed by the subjunctiveÃ because we dont yet know if the action is going to become a reality. With AprÃ ¨s que, the action has taken place already: there is no doubt left, hence no need for the subjunctive. AprÃ ¨s que subjunctive sounds so bad to a French ear that we will do our best to use a noun instead of a verb after. You can use the same trick with avant que et avoid using a subjunctive. Je dois commencer aprÃ ¨s quil part. (or aprÃ ¨s son dÃ ©part)I must start after he leaves (or after his departure). Je dois commencer avant quil parte (or avant son dÃ ©part).I must start before he leaves (or before his departure) By the way, even if we use le derriÃ ¨re in French (although this is extremely polite, just like saying the behind in English), French people use the preposition derriÃ ¨re without thinking about it at all. Just like in English you use behind without thinking about that part of the anatomy.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Slide, Leap or Climb into Writing . . . and Accept the Results IÃ¢â¬â¢ve shifted in how I talk to writers who contact me, asking for my advice on their particular journeys. Before I guide them on agents, contests, grants and the general Ã¢â¬Å"how can I start earning a living at thisÃ¢â¬ questions, I ask: Ã¢â¬Å"What are you trying to do with your writing? What are your goals?Ã¢â¬ Most say: Ã¢â¬Å"I want to get published.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I want to work full-time as a writer.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I want to make money and I like to write.Ã¢â¬ Then I ask what they are doing about reaching that goal. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve yet to find a single writer who has an answer to that question other than Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m writing this storyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ There are three ways to become a professional writer. I use the word professional as the opposite to hob SLIDERS You are watching everyone else. You are also reading blogs, attempting to make Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ online in various places with some of them, joining chat groups . . . all in the name of talking about writing. You exclaim over someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s success, saying you hope to do that one day. You bash someone the media is already gnawing on, proclaiming them blasphemous to the profession. You write when a good idea strikes. You pick up an old story and piddle with it during NaNoWriMo. You enter a contest or two, blaming nepotism or good-old-boyism when you do not win, or you are honest and say maybe you still need to work harder. LEAPERS Well, damn, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve decided to be a writer. Today, this instant. Where can you submit? How do they pay? How long before you have enough to pay the bills and dump the crazy job you hate? You are now committed to being a writer, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to take the leap and see where you land. Ray Bradbury said leap and you sprout wings on the way down. If the concept is good enough for him, itÃ¢â¬â¢s good enough for you. CLIMBERS You want this title WRITER, maybe even AUTHOR one day. The goal is on that peak way up there, where youÃ¢â¬â¢ve published and earned a living as a writer. You see others grabbing flights to that peak, but youÃ¢â¬â¢re using your feet, your hands, the tools at your grasp, and taking the journey one hard, craggy step at a time. You do not want to reach that peak too soon, for then you have to prove to people what you know. That knowledge is in each step, each slip, each backsliding effort that makes you regroup and grip harder, dig in deeper. It might take you a while, but the fear of reaching that peak prematurely gives you the incentive to embrace the journey up the mountain. Not only will your muscles be stronger, your self-esteem deeper, but if you somehow stumble and fall off the mountain, you know exactly what it takes to get back up there.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Critical Thinking - Assignment Example Q 2 (Answer): The author is of the view that if the CIA had adopted unambiguous strategy regarding the uranium enriching programs launched by North Korea, the USA would have been in a better position to discard Korean efforts of obtaining centrifuges for becoming atomic power. The author is of the opinion that the intelligence agencies of the USA should gather accurate and comprehensive information; otherwise, continuous alteration in the policy for discouraging the preparation of destructive weapons by the countries like North Korea and others would be at grave jeopardy. Hence, inappropriate flow of incorrect information may let the countries create weapons of mass destruction without any restrictions making the world an unsafe place of living. That the US authorities were aware of the advancements made by North Korea to obtain the sufficient uranium processing capabilities, but they did not take any measures to discourage and stop such advancements. Q 4 (Answer): The article under analysis maintains few implications in it. First of all, it aims to state that the u-turns taken by the authorities and agencies regarding one issue or the other may lead towards embarrassment and disgrace on the one hand, and may nullify the reports prepared and presented by them on the other. In addition, such collection of data, which cannot be proved as the accurate one, may put the efforts and reputation of the institutions and agencies at stake. Thirdly, such contradictions in the statements may provide the rivals with an opportunity of strengthening themselves at the cost of these agencies. Q 5 (Answer): The facts include that North Korea had been persistent in getting centrifuges from different countries particularly from Pakistan. In addition, she never hesitated in augmenting her strategic strength by fastening her attempt
Sunday, February 2, 2020
British English Dialectology - Essay Example Indeed, the precise condition of these variables has been a basis for debate for students. If the graduates were considered as forms of Caribbean Standard English, varying English tongues, or enunciations of British English linguistics could have been imposed among its variables. While one cannot take note of the fact that there are variations to be made between the numerous Caribbean varieties, the general imprint as stated by David Cystal, is one of a compilation of expressions close affiliated with framework and language (Pietsch, Kortmann & Wagner, 2005, p. 5). This is a perspective shared by Loreto Toddsince he clearly claims that there are inadequate collective-core facets to allow people to regard us to consider them as a logically standardized philological group. Several universal syntactic outlines have been seen in all the variables, even if variations in enunciation or presaging reduce the similarities less understandable. According to leading English dialects and scholars , there is adequacy in regularity between the creolized English of one part of the Caribbean and another for there to be a prospective Caribbean English for writers to make use of with influence, whatever listeners they are focusing on having a huge impact on. The following paper will look into the various variables that have come to define a characteristic of a particular diversity of English. The essay will be followed by an immediate survey of the literature done on British English linguistics, whether in enunciation, grammar or bilingual dictionary. A. Variables that define a characteristic of British English dialectology I. Geographical variation Demographical variation is additionally complex by the fact that every zonal will adjust in register in accordance with the environment of the language (Pietsch, Kortmann & Wagner, 2005, p. 12). It is currently generally believed that the linguistic condition in the Carribean could be best defined in terms of a variety with wide Creole , or the basilect at a single end and average English, or the Creole at the other. In between are to be discovered the language outlines or mesolects. The Barbadian writer George laming, composing a majority of these literary works concerning English writersÃ¢â¬â¢ who support the thesis that the language these works were composed in English, a West Indian language. Whilst African and Indian author composing in English define personalities whose beliefs would not on the whole be in English, West Indian authors do not have to confront a similar issue (Gorlach & Schneider, 1997, p. 140). Nevertheless, renowned literature composers claimed that that it is English that is not regulated, imported, learned English, but that of the submerged surrealist experience and sensibility that has consistently been present. It is currently increasingly coming to the surface and affecting the idea of short-term Caribbean people. Even so, if the word Caribbean implies to a broad range and diverse fie ld, the people have a joint experience and resembling worries when it comes to the issues of uniqueness and linguistics (Pietsch, Kortmann & Wagner, 2005, p.20). II. Social variables Such a range of variables can be affiliated with a detailed place or field instead, more astonishingly it also might be affiliated with a definite communal group. It could be male or female, youthful or aged are aspects that define the social variable of the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Theories Of Implicit And Explicit Knowledge English Language Essay The distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge is of great significance for language teaching. The theoretical models emerging from SLA research have taken up differing stances on the interface between implicit and explicit knowledge in the L2 learning process. With reference to these stances, two points of particular interest to L2 classroom instruction are: which type of knowledge contributes more effectively to learning and which type of teaching, explicit or implicit, provides more assistance to the L2 learning process. This paper discusses some of the influential theories of implicit and explicit knowledge; how the two types of knowledge contribute to learning; and the impact of theory on classroom instructional methodologies. Although both types of knowledge can refer to different aspects of language, this paper focuses particularly on grammar for two reasons: firstly due to space limitations, and secondly because of its importance to language pedagogy. The paper starts by defining the two types of knowledge and providing an overview of what the corresponding learning and teaching aspects of this knowledge entail. The theories that are then discussed have been grouped according to their stance on how the two types of knowledge interface. Along with a brief description of the theories I will also look at their implications on classroom instruction. The paper concludes by reviewing form focused instruction, which is a good example of how ideas emanating from theory have influenced teaching approaches by integrating the artificiality of learning into a more natural process. 2. Defining the implicit/explict dichotomy 2.1 Implicit knowledge, learning and instruction Implicit knowledge is commonly associated with a learners linguistic competence (Ellis, 2005a). Literature on psychology and SLA research uses several overlapping terms to refer to this knowledge, for example, unconscious knowledge, intuitive knowledge/awareness, epilinguistic behaviour, spontaneous/ automated knowledge, or procedural knowledge/rules/memory. Bialystok (1981) offers the following description of implicit knowledge: The general form in which information is represented allows us to know things intuitively without being aware of the formal properties of that knowledge. For example, we know a great deal about language that defies mental examination, but the knowledge is demonstrated by our ability to produce correct, coherent utterances. Implicit knowledge underlies the fluent language skills usually associated with native speakers (Hulstijn, 2007), who have an ability to notice grammatical errors without necessarily being able to explain the rules causing them. Ellis (1994) suggests that this knowledge can be broken down into two sub-categories: formulaic knowledge consisting of pre-fabricated chunks of language; and rule-based which consists of general and abstract structures which have been internalised. Both these sub-categories are stored unconsciously and only become apparent when the language is produced in communication (ibid). Within the brain, implicit knowledge is not restricted to one specific area, but is spread over different regions of the neocortex (Paradis, 1994). Implicit learning is the forming of implicit knowledge, and is a natural process of acquiring new knowledge unknowingly, and in such way that the knowledge is difficult to verbalise (Ellis, 1994). For example, a learner may unwittingly learn a grammatical rule while working on a meaning focused activity, or notice a structural pattern during a short-term memory task. This learning takes place automatically whenever information is processed receptively, and once the process is initiated, the learner cannot choose not to encode the input (Hulstijn, 2007). Classroom instruction is considered implicit if rules are not presented and learners are not required to attend to forms (Norris and Ortega, 2000). Examples of implicit instruction include high frequency input, interaction, and recasts (Spada, 2010). Grammatical and lexical resources are a means to an end, and considering the general consensus that development of implicit linguistic knowledge results in language acquisition, the ultimate aim of classroom instruction should be to facilitate this development (Ellis, 2005b). Even though there is still disagreement on how implicit knowledge is acquired, it is generally accepted that communicative activities play an essential role in the process; therefore communicative tasks could be an effective instructional tool when the language learning focus is on implicit knowledge (ibid). 2.2 Explicit Knowledge, learning and instruction Explicit knowledge refers to different aspects of language, including grammatical, phonological, lexical, pragmatic and socio-cultural (Ellis, 2005a). As with implicit knowledge, several overlapping terms have been used to refer to L2 explicit knowledge, for example, language/metalinguistic awareness, analysed knowledge, conscious knowledge, declarative knowledge, learned knowledge, or metagrammar. Ellis (2004: 244) gives an extended definition of explicit knowledge as: Explicit L2 knowledge is the declarative and often anomalous knowledge of the phonological, lexical, grammatical, and sociocritical features of an L2 together with the metalanguage for labelling this knowledge. It is held consistently and is learnable and verbalisable. It is typically accessed through controlled processing when L2 learners experience some kind of linguistic difficulty in the use of the L2. Learners vary in the breadth and depth of their L2 explicit knowledge. Explicit learning is a conscious, deliberate process of structuring explicit, verbalisable knowledge, which can take place while learning concepts/rules in the classroom or it may be initiated independently (Hulstijn, 2007), for example, when a learner refers to a grammar book to find the past participle of a particular verb. This type of learning requires a degree of cognitive development, therefore it is unlikely to take place in early childhood (ibid). Explicit knowledge is said to reside, or at least processed in a specific area of the brain (the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus), which is separate to the areas where implicit knowledge is stored (Ullman, 2001). Norris and Ortega suggest that explicit instruction exists along a continuum, from instruction which is more to that which is less explicit (Norris and Ortega, 2000). A deductive approach to classroom instruction is an example of a more explicit from of instruction, where rules are explained before a structure is presented in context. An example of a less explicit form is inductive instruction, here learners are asked to attend to and make metalinguistic generalisations on a form which has already been presented in context (ibid). 3. The implicit/explicit interface The contradictory claims regarding the dichotomy of implicit and explicit knowledge have focused mainly on how these two types of knowledge interface. The interface hypothesis presents three positions which argue the extent to which explicit knowledge is involved in L2 acquisition. 3.1 The non-interface position At a certain age children stop using their language to communicate and begin to look at it reflectively (Tunman and Herriman, 1984). Childrens use of explicit knowledge is considered to exhibit different levels of consciousness depending on their literacy skills, whereas their acquisition or use of implicit knowledge shows little variation (Ellis, 2004). This implies therefore, that knowledge which initiates conscious or explicit linguistic behaviour is distinct from that unconscious or implicit knowledge which characterises natural language use. Krashen (1982), Paradis (1994) and Schwartz (1993) claim that acquired and explicitly learned L2 knowledge does not interface, arguing that the former is responsible for language fluency, and the latter is only useful to monitor communicative output. Paradis (1994) also rejects the possibility of explicit knowledge converting directly into implicit knowledge, or vice versa. He suggests that since these two types of knowledge exist in neuroanatomically distinct memory systems, they can interact but transfer of knowledge from one to the other is unlikely (ibid). Krashen (1982) argues that formal teaching of grammar is unnecessary as it has no effect on language acquisition, and explicit L2 knowledge may never actually convert to implicit knowledge. In addition he suggests learners have little ability to learn grammar. Similarly, Truscott (1996) adds that the only benefits of formal grammar instruction are in preparing learners for assessment which look to measure explicit metalinguistic knowledge rather than communicative ability. In his input hypothesis Krashen states that like L1, L2 acquisition is also a natural process which occurs implicitly while a learner is exposed to comprehensible L2 input (Krashen, 1982). If learners are motivated, they will naturally follow an in-built syllabus to develop their inter-language, and using an intuitive process of trial and error, eventually acquire the L2 (Ibid). Krashens theory was the inspiration behind the natural and communicative approaches to language teaching. Counter to Krashens claims, evidence from research has shown that despite immersion in the L2, learners continue to make grammatical errors. A study by Harley and Swain (1984), for example, showed that immersion students relying purely on comprehensible input were unable to achieve high levels of language proficiency. Effect of L1 transfer is a possible reason why implicit learning processes are less effective for L2 (Ellis, 2008). Unlike a newborn infant, the L2 learners neocortex is already configured and optimised for the L1 (ibid). L2 processing and automatisation therefore occur non-optimally, as they have to rely on implicit L1 representations (ibid). A weaker form of the non-interface position suggests a possibility of implicit knowledge being transferred to explicit knowledge through conscious reflection and analysis of implicitly generated output (for example, Bialystok, 1982). Similarly, Ellis (1994) also argues for a seperateness of the two types of knowledge, he proposes a connectionist account of implicit knowledge as a complex interconnected network which is neurologically detached from explicit language knowledge. However, he suggests that the two types of knowledge may be derived from each other and that they can interact during language use (ibid: 235). 3.2 The interface position The non-interface position has been attacked both theoretically and empirically by other SLA researchers, who have addressed the role played by explicit knowledge in language acquisition. Sharwood Smith (2004), for example, uses the interface hypothesis to argue that explicit knowledge can be gained from implicit knowledge, and similarly explicit knowledge can be transformed to implicit knowledge using: contextualised communicative practice, repeated use and corrective feedback. Taking a strong interface position, the skill building theory (DeKeyser, 2003) suggests that a procedularised form of explicit knowledge is functionally equivalent to implicit knowledge when learners are given plenty of opportunities to engage in meaningful communicative practice. This practice is an essential step in proceduralising the target language for spontaneous use; hence it is important that learners are motivated to engage in this process through non-threatening feedback (Faerch, 1986). Many studies have provided empirical evidence to justify the role of explicit grammar teaching. Ellis (1994), for example, has shown that explicit language instruction leads to faster learning, and that adhering to an implicit focus on meaning fails to provide high levels of competence. However, for grammar instruction to be effective, some researchers have found that a careful selection and sequencing of rules is essential, as well as a determination of the learners linguistic readiness to accept a new grammatical item (Ellis, 1994; Fotos, 1994). The grammar translation and cognitive approaches, which were popular in the 1960s and 70s are typical examples of explicit teaching methods. These methods were influenced by the belief that an explicit knowledge of grammatical rules precedes their use (Ellis, 2008). The PPP model is another instructional approach taking an interface stance. PPP emphasis a focus on form, and stipulates that a language feature should be: explicitly presented, then practiced and finally produced in order to procedularise the feature. Swan (2005) sees PPP as a useful approach for presenting and practicing language structures under semi-controlled conditions. However, PPP is now widely seen as lacking a firm basis in SLA theory, its linearity and behaviourist nature fails to take into consideration the stages of developmental readiness that a learner goes through (Ellis, 2003); and its systematic instructional approach is unlikely to lead to acquisition of the language feature taught (Skehan, 1996). 3.3 The weak interface position A weak interface position proposed by some theorists, suggests the possibility of transferring knowledge between the implicit/explicit systems. Two popular processing models from cognitive psychology which take a weak-interface position are McLaughlins (1987) information processing model, and Andersons (1983) ACT model. The information-processing model proposes that complex behaviour evolves from simple modular processes that can be isolated and analysed independently (McLaughlin, 1987). Within this framework L2 learners use controlled processing, requiring a lot of attentional control to generate language sequences, which are then stored in short-term memory (ibid). Through repeated activation, these sequences become automatic and are transferred to long-term memory, where they can be accessed with minimal attentional control (ibid). Based on a similar viewpoint, the ACT model (Anderson, 1983), suggests that declarative knowledge (knowing that something is the case) leads to procedural knowledge (knowing how to do something). Three types of memory are defined in this framework: a working memory (similar to short-term memory), and two types of long-term memory, declarative and procedural. Anderson maintains that during learning, declarative knowledge becomes procedural and automatised, and that both types of knowledge are stored differently (ibid). A learner might start of by studying a rule (for example, Use a and an when the following word starts with a consonant or vowel, respectively), but every time a phrase containing this rule is produced or received, the phrase is stored as an instance in memory (Logan, 1988). Increasing encounters with these instances raises their activation levels to such an extent that eventually retrieving a stored instance will be quicker than applying the rule (ibid). Other versions of the weak interface position also support a possibility of knowledge transfer but set restrictions on when and how this transfer can take place. Pienemann (1989), for example, argues that learners cannot transmit knowledge between the two systems until they are ready to acquire the linguistic form. Ellis (1994) claims that explicitly teaching declarative rules can have a top-down impact on perception, leading to saliency of the taught language features. Learners are then able to notice the feature during input, and by comparing it with their output can consciously notice the gap (ibid). Explicit knowledge in this case acts as a stimulus in activating conscious awareness and the subsequent storage in long-term memory (Ellis, 2005b). The significance of explicit knowledge in this case is not so much as a contributor to acquisition, but as a detector of specific language features in the input. Ellis suggests consciousness raising (CR) as a way of setting a linguistic focus to tasks, and encouraging learner autonomy by requiring learners to derive explicit grammar rules independently (Ellis 2005b). CR raising tasks can be inductive or deductive, in the former learners are expected to induce an explicit representation of a rule, whereas in the latter the rule is provided at the beginning of the task (Ellis et al., 2003). The main aims of CR tasks are to involve learners in goal-orientated communication and to encourage the development of explicit knowledge (ibid). 4. Form focused instruction (FFI) FFI consists of a number of approaches to teaching that advocate a focus on both meaning and form (for example, Doughty and Williams, 1998; Lightbown and Spada, 1990). The distinction between the various types of FFI is that some are implicit in nature, and others are more explicit. Ellis (2001) defines FFI as a type of instruction which includes any planned or incidental instructional activity that is intended to induce language learners to pay attention to linguistic form. Long (1991) distinguishes between two types of FFI: focus on formS (FonFs) and focus on form (FonF). The former involves teaching discrete grammar points according to a synthetic syllabus leading to a preselected linguistic target (ibid). FonFs is regarded as an explicit form of FFI (Housen and Pierrard, 2005) and is more in line with the interface position. A typical example of a FonFs approach is the PPP model. FonF on the other hand is a more implicit form of FFI (ibid), and aims to overtly draw the students attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons whose overriding focus is on meaning or communication (Long, 1991: 45). FonF is based on the idea that first and second language acquisition are similar in that they both rely on exposure to comprehensible input from natural interaction (ibid). However it also takes into account important differences: that learners cannot acquire many of the grammatical aspects of language through exposure alone, and that this needs to be balanced by providing a focus on grammatical as well as communicative aspects of the second language (ibid). The instructional activities associated with the FonF approach involve a mixture of implicit and explicit techniques, for example: input enhancement where a target form is highlighted for awareness; and a structure-based task (Fotos, 2005) which requires the completion of a meaningful task u sing the target form, before the latter is explicitly taught and practiced further. Long (1991) contends that FonF instruction may be more effective than a focus on meaning (FonM) or a FonFs approach, because it is more consistent with the findings of SLA research. From a psycholinguistic perspective a FonF teaching in the classroom is justified for three main reasons: FonM may be useful in developing oral fluency, however it fails to provide high levels of linguistic or sociolinguistic competence (Ellis et al., 2003). The FonM approach is based on Krashens (1981) hypothesis which states that all that is needed to acquire a language is extensive exposure to rich comprehensible L2 input. However, while researching literature comparing instructed with uninstructed learning (FonM), Long (1991) found that instructed learning was much more effective in achieving high proficiency levels. A FonFs approach is based on the idea that classroom L2 learning is derived from cognitive processes and therefore involves the learning of a skill (Ellis et al., 2003). However empirical evidence (for example Pienemann, 1989) suggests that a FonFs approach does not guarantee that learners will develop the ability to restructure their interlanguage. Studies have shown that classroom learning follows a sequentially similar acquisition process as natural learning (Ellis et al., 2003). However, in the classroom learners may follow an inbuilt syllabus, allowing them to benefit or acquire only those aspects of FFI for which they are linguistically ready (ibid). Therefore deciding on which language feature learners are ready to acquire may pose a difficulty for FonFs instruction. A FonF instruction draws attention to the target form through a contextually meaningful communication, allowing the learners to develop their fluency and accuracy (Ellis et al., 2003). FonF is pedagogically efficient in that it can focus specifically on those language features that either need clarification or are problematic at a contextually relevant moment (ibid). FonF also gives an opportunity to learners to receive feedback in a meaningful context, allowing them to notice the gap between their interlanguage and the negative evidence provided by the feedback (ibid). Johnson (1996), in his skills building theory suggests that feedback is most useful for learners when it is presented in real operating conditions. Corrective feedback exposes learners to the correct form and encourages them to produce it themselves; leading to a possible acquisition of these forms (Ellis et al., 2003). The above discussion supports the efficacy of FonF instruction; however the effectiveness of this method in some EFL contexts is doubted. In educational contexts where teachers are obliged to follow a tightly controlled syllabus, or where class size does not permit individual feedback, a FonF instructional approach may be difficult to implement (Poole, 2005). What this suggests is that pedagogical implications of SLA studies on implicit and explicit knowledge need to be related to different learning and teaching contexts. 5. Conclusion This paper discussed some of the prominent theories that have emerged from SLA research on implicit and explicit knowledge. As well as defining the two types of knowledge, their impact on the learning process and instructional practices were also highlighted. A look at focus on form instruction showed how the ideas from different theoretical viewpoints have merged to give a teaching approach which balances both implicit and explicit learning. Although research has shown that traditional explicit grammar instruction is unlikely to lead to the implicit knowledge needed for proficiency in a language, there is still a lot of controversy regarding the best alternative (Ellis, 2006). The conflicting views on the overall role of implicit and explicit knowledge in SLA point to the complexity of the issue and suggest that a thorough understanding is still evolving. Ellis (2008) suggests that because consciousness and linguistic knowledge are so difficult to conceptualise and operationalise, improving our insight in these areas is a major challenge. In order to help gain a deeper understanding, future research needs to collaborate with developments in other disciplines such as cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience (Doughty and Long, 2003).
Friday, January 17, 2020
We talked about the destinations, accommodation and the budget for each group, because we're divided into 8 groups. The 4 groups are going to Sad and the other 4 are going to Ã¢â¬Ëlocos Norte and Sure. March 26, Second day Sir Mann told me went to De La Sale in Taft Avenue to pass his papers and after that I went to Bambina and bought some medicine for our medical kit that we will be using for our Tour. March 27, Sir Mann told me went to Magmata to meet Mr.. Carlo, he is aBusinessman and my Job is to get his full payment for the Honking Tour, I remember that guy because he gave me a tip and treat me in a high class restaurant. I think he gave me the payment and it cost around forty five thousand pesos in cash so that day I feel Anxious and when I came back in our office I took a rest because we were having a tour on the next day. May 28, I Joined the Ã¢â¬Ëlocos Holy week tour Sir Lieu San Martin and I were partner and we brought 50 Tourist or Clients.They came from different grou p so our mission is to make them friends before the Tour ends. I'm he one who's in-charge in money transactions, checking-in the tourist on their of our tour and my task for this day is to serve and remind the hotel to prepare their breakfast and to be a professional photographer because we coordinator are the one to took them pictures if they requested only. March 30 last day of our Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour, we went to Vagina heritage to buy some stuffs and shirts and after that back to Manila.WEEK 2: April 2- 8, 2013 April 2, we trainees taught to make a company email address and we made an account in slit. Com to promote some tour packages that we are offering. April 3, Sir Mann taught us how to answer phone calls and how to make a reservation for those clients asking for a tour or some promos that we are offering. April 4, Mama Promotion taught me how to deposit, withdraw and other banking transactions, the truth is I have no idea how banking transactions is processed and I sort out so me receipts and bills.April 5, Sir Ryan our Marketing specialist taught me how to make an ads and how to compute those tour price, accommodation and airline tickets that they are offering. April 6, another Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour is came so automatically we trainees are joined. We did the same thing like the last tour but this tour is the most unforgettable tour, because one of our clients sends a message to our company directly to Mr.. Mann our General Manager, the client complains are 1 . What a kind of Tour guide you have? 2. Your tour guide is making money on us. 3.The tour guide of your company is not well dressed. The complainant used other mobile number for us not to know who she/he is, by that day I don't know what to do, because I'm not expecting that would be happened. WEEK 3: April 9-12, 15, 2013 April 9, this is Holiday from Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour we came here at manila by 2 o'clock in the ironing and by 3 o'clock in the morning we went to Lucian, Guenon for our Success in the past Holy week tour and also an incentives because almost of our clients appreciated my effort in that tour and I am very thankful to those clients.April 10, 11, 12, I did some paper works like sort out receipts, print some documents, arranged the files, books, Fliers, Directories, Posters, answer phone calls. April 15, we trainees cleaned up the whole office and put some wall designs because some unexpectedly visitors from Department of Tourism would come. WEEK 4: April 16-19, 2013 April 16, on this day we are tasked to make some research about Minor travelers and airline codes, airport codes, airport rules. We did for the whole day is to read what we searched.April 17, this is the day of our quiz I remember that is a 100 items quiz but only two questions (it's weird right) I got 96 and my co-trainee got 94 so he failed and I got passed but I'm not putting up myself I'm Just happy because I didn't expected that I will passed the quiz. April 18, we were tasked to made a tour itinerary f rom Zebu-boll-campaign, I have no idea in that place so the whole day Im focused n that task and sir and I talked one-on-one about the itinerary I made and fortunately , I passed again because I defend my answer correctly and exactly it made my confident boost.April 19, Sir Mann asked me and my co-trainee to repost all of the ads we post in Slit, the purpose of reposting those ads is to make the clients easily look for that April 22, Just the same thing I did some edit and fix some files and ads on website. April 23, Deposit those payments of the clients in the bank, sort out those receipts again, answering phone calls. April 24, Mr..Mann taught us how to speak fluently and e told me some tips and reminders for me to knew that in the future we need to become comfortable and hospitable in our clients even though our clients is not in a good mood, do paper works, answer phone calls and other matters. April 25, tomorrow would be our last day so I review those tour packages that they're offers and repost it again. April 26, taking pictures of the facilities, gathered those information that I need for the completion of my practicum report and finished my 300 hours of Journey and unforgettable experienced in Tuesday Tours and Travel. General Perception of the training
Thursday, January 9, 2020
A few weeks ago, a picture about a dead boy in the beach let us pay attention to Migration waves. Governments have to consider how to limit migration trends because they think a large number of immigrants will lead to a terrible effect on local residents. Based on this point, some countries adopted some strategies to limit migration. They reduced some benefits and increased the difficulty to immigrants. Even some governments such as Japan government refuse to people to immigrate. Even though immigrants bring some benefits, governments are still afraid of the negative impact of immigration on the following three aspects: local market, wages and social stability. However, some facts and research show the terrible effect is not significant to these parts. And immigrants also bring some benefits to local residents. A traditional viewpoint on immigration is that foreign population will have a terrible effect on native people to get fewer opportunities to find work. Some people believe imm igration will bring a huge impact on local markets because their requirements of jobs are always lower than the local residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. It means they will get more chance than local people. However, a survey from Michel J. Greenwood about US immigration shows the influence of immigration to local markets does not have appreciable effects. In this survey, he said a possible explanation about why immigrants do not influence on local people was that immigrants were not distributed inShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Immigration On The United States1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlthough, there are many different approaches in viewing the immigration reform in the United States. Immigration can be seen as a much more complex issue than just what meets the human eye. 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