Monday, September 30, 2019
National GovernmentÃ is a concept referring to the coalition of the major political parties which were under Ramsay MacDonald,Ã Stanley BaldwinÃ andÃ Neville ChamberlainÃ they held office from 1931 until 1940. TheÃ Wall Street CrashÃ was the start of Great DepressionÃ and Britain was badly hit. The Government tried to achieve several different, contradictory objectives which where ones such as, trying to maintain BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s economic position by maintaining theÃ poundÃ on theÃ gold standard, balancing theÃ budget, and providing assistance and relief to tackle unemployment. In 1931 the situation worsened and there was fear that the budget was unbalanced, which was allowed by the independentÃ May ReportÃ which triggered a confidence crisis. TheÃ Labour GovernmentÃ agreed to make changes in taxation and expenditure in order to balance the budget and restore confidence, but theÃ CabinetÃ could not agree on the two options available which was either introduceÃ tariffs, or make 20% cuts inÃ unemployment benefit. A final vote was taken on the issue and the Cabinet was split 11:9 with a minority including many political heavyweights such as George Lansbury threatening to resign rather than agree. Due to this unworkable split, on 24 August 1931 the government resigned. Both the Conservative and Liberal parties met withÃ King George VÃ and MacDonald, first to discuss support for the measures taken but again to discuss the shape of the next government. On 24 August MacDonald agreed to form a National Government composed of Ã¢â¬Å"men from all partiesÃ¢â¬ with the specific aim of balancing the Budget and restoring confidence. The Government was then meant to resolve once these aims had been met and a general election was to be held. The National Government had many problems during their time in office. One of the major problems they had was the impact of the depression was strong upon Britain. An economic problem they faced was that unemployment had risen to 3 million. During their time in office the unemployment level did drop but this was not due to the national Government it was due to new technology and industries, Rearmament started up in 1936 and there was a housing boom. The national government came up with many schemes such as closing competing factories i. e. cotton; shipbuilding this only increased the number of unemployed. The came up with the unemployment assistance act and the special areas act these worked to a certain extent as for certain areas it was too little too late for schemes like this. But it could not get rid of the intractable million who were people who came from staple industries such as coal, textiles, shipbuilding, iron and steel. These people where the ones who lived in places such as Jarrow where 1 in 10 men where in work. A social problem they faced was that as the impact of the Depression was hard on Britain, there was a large drop in living standards a cut in the amount of benefits people could collect and there was a means test to see if families where eligible for benefits. Which meant fewer families got the Ã¢â¬ËdoleÃ¢â¬â¢ and if they did get it they got a small amount which created the two nations in Britain. As places like Jarrow were one of the worst hit places while places like London and Bristol benefited from a lot of the changes such as they were the ones able to use the new technology and be hired into the new industries and they were one of the few who could afford to buy a new house in the housing boom. There were many hunger marches due to this; the most famous was the Jarrow crusade. This is where many unemployed marched all the way to London to speak to Baldwin about what he was going to do to help them but they were refused a seating which him all they arrived was tea and sympathy it is said. Another Problem faced by the National Government was the balancing of the budget. This was orthodox economics which means it is situation in financial planning where total revenues are equal to or greater than total expenses. This was successful to a limited extent as with all the cuts such as 20% off unemployment as well as having a means test allowing them to save enough money for them to get foreign loans. But only the south of England benefited from the money saved. Social problem occurred due to cuts in unemployment benefit was that there was a drop in benefits for unemployed which led to them having a lower standard of living. They came off the gold standard which made the exports (manufacturers goods) which where imports into other countries cheaper. They lowered interest rates, which helped small businesses, home owners and those in the south of England. Then public sector pay was cut by 10% but navy was not happy about this which caused trouble when the Invogadon navy mutinied. The National Government were successful to an extent but they were limited due to all the economic greatness helped those who were in the south of England and not those in the north which allowed the social deprivation to continue.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In Malaysian Tax System, Royal Custom & Excise Department is responsible for all policies related of Goods and Services Tax (GST). Currently, the rate of GST can be category to 3 rates which are standard rate, zero rate and exempt supplies. (Gst.customs.gov.my, 2014) GST can only be charged on the business was registered under the Malaysian Goods and Services Act 2014. The registration exemption is given if the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s annual turnover of taxable supplier is below than the GST registration threshold. Thus, such businesses cannot charge GST on their products or services from their customers. (Gst.customs.gov.my, 2014) The GST registration is available from 1st June 2014 for any businesses which have reach the GST registration threshold of more than RM500, 000 are required to register under with Royal Malaysian Customs Department for the Goods and Services Tax (GST) before 31st December 2014. Nevertheless, the business with annual turnover below RM500, 000 may apply for the GST voluntary registration that is because registration GST is voluntary. (HengAnn, 2014) There are no any extra fees charged for GST registration processing. Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Value-Added Tax (VAT) are a type of consumption tax had been invented in 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Both of GST and VAT are based on value added concept and it is a multi-stage tax, so GST or VAT will charge at each stage of supplies chain. Currently, there are 160 countries had implemented GST or VAT and from this statistic has shown that GST and VAT are an effective and fair tax system. According to the data shows based on the region, 160 countries had implemented GST or VAT are as the following countries: 7 countries in ASEAN, 19 countries in Asia, 53 countries in Europe, 7 countries in Oceania, 44 countries in Africa, 11 countries in South America and 19 countries in Caribbean, Central and North America. On 7th April 2014, the Goods and Services Tax was passed in Dewan Rakyat Malaysia with 119 votes for and 81 votes against. Start from 1st April 2015, GST will effective at a standard tax rate of 6%. The propose of implementation GST will replace the current consumption taxes which are Government Sales Tax (10%) and Services Tax (6%).
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Personal Statement Example Sometimes just holding the things or bringing him something that he needs. I could not see my father taking the entire burden alone therefore; I decided to help him in my own way. This time was the most difficult time of my life as well as the turning point in my life. During that period, I realized the importance of knowledge as well as money and I came to know that knowledge is a way towards money. However, one cannot deny that at times only money can help in acquiring the knowledge and then this knowledge contributes in earning both money and respect. Moreover, I came to know one more bitter reality of the world that money makes friends and money gives you respect. Nevertheless, there also exist some angels in this world who are aware of the importance of knowledge and do not care about financial conditions of a person rather their talents. As we study in economics that investing in social sector that is education, does not give a country immediate results but a country sees its r esults after some years. Similarly, knowledge along with its alleviating power that is education can take a person to the soaring heights of success but it needs some time. There are two reasons that augment my interest in economics. Firstly, my financial conditions that have always prompted me to think about certain aspects of economics such as the reason of sudden changes in demand and supply, increase and decrease in prices of certain products and saturation of market. As in the period of financial crises, I had all the responsibilities of house such as buying of groceries and other important stuff therefore, I was always aware of the increase and decrease of prices. I did not only confine myself to knowing the prices but I also tried to know the reasons behind changes in trends. In this struggle, I always got the answers of my questions that why the prices increase and decrease. This reasoning attracted me more and became second reason of creating my interest in economics. In ec onomics, there is always a reason behind occurring of any event and I am very rational person therefore, by the time I started researching more on economics and inclined more towards economics. However, this was a very tough time of my life but without these hardships, I would never be able to discover myself and know what actually field of my interest is. I used to talk to my father about the bankruptcy and know what the economic reason behind this bankruptcy was. Did we not create enough demand for our product or did our product was very expensive that people could not afford it. Did government put some restrictions on our company or did we not have enough funds to run the company. If we did not have enough funds, then what was the reason behind this? My father and I used to have long conversations on these issues and I used to enjoy it a lot. Reasoning is something that fascinates me a lot and therefore economics is my priority. In addition, I did not remain behind in the race of extracurricular activities. In my school, I was inter club representative and represented my school in other schools. I was also the representative of Hong Kong Students. I never let my financial crisis overwhelm me rather I lived my life in a realistic and positive manner. These situations made me a very audacious person and gave me valor to speak in front of people, as I knew about the reality of this world that no one is yours until you persuade them through your acts and actions. I possess
Friday, September 27, 2019
Critical analysis of 2 plays Wilson, Fences and Hansberry, Raisin in the Sun - Essay Example Black people living in the Northern cities also had to deal with a great deal of racism and lack of opportunity. Not as recognized because it was not codified, the boundaries discovered in the Northern cities were sometimes just as harsh as those experienced in the Southern fields. Several of the limitations or boundaries experienced by black people in the Northern towns might have gone largely unrecognized had it not been for bold playwrights such as Lorraine Hansberry and August Wilson willing to capture, as much as possible, their interpretation of the black experience. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"FencesÃ¢â¬ , both Hansberry and Wilson are able to expose the hidden boundaries their characters encounter as they attempt to achieve a modest version of the American dream. Lorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ attempts to portray a relatively typical black family realistically attempting to cope with the boundaries the American society has placed on them. Opening the way for future writers to blatantly name their experience, the play opened on stage in 1959 and received positive reaction from white and black audiences for its bald realism. The play essentially reveals what happens during the few weeks following the death of the father, Mr. Younger. Mr. Younger (Big Walter) and Mrs. Lena Younger had once hoped of achieving the American Dream as she remarks to Ruth in Act I, scene 1: Ã¢â¬Å"We was going to set away, little by little, donÃ¢â¬â¢t you know, and buy a little place out in Morgan Park. We had even picked out the house Ã¢â¬ ¦ Lord, child, you should know all the dreams I had Ã¢â¬Ëbout buying that house and fixing it up and making me a little garden in the back Ã¢â¬ ¦ And didnÃ¢â¬â¢t none of it happenÃ¢â¬ (Hansberry 45). This conversation occurs because the family is waiting on the delivery of an insurance check in
Thursday, September 26, 2019
UC Admissions - Personal Statement Example This paper the researcher is writing to apply for the Business Administration program specializing in accounting. At this point in life where he has to decide on his professional future, the author has chosen to pursue a career in business administration mainly due to his interest in the field and the confidence he has gained through his work experiences. The author has been interested in business and accounts since high school and this has today become a major motivating factor for pursuing his further education. After graduating from high school, the researcher worked for a business concern run by his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s father for about a year which was a good learning experience in more ways than one. This work experience made him realize the importance of accounting in business ventures and also inspired him to learn the core aspects of the subject in order to fully understand and comprehend business-related problems and issues.Ã In addition, the author also worked at a local ban k during his summer break and this experience provided him an opportunity to learn many aspects of accounting and its related issues. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences have provided a good platform to explore and understand the different aspects related to business and accounting. Every experience that he stood to gain reinforced his interest in the subject and his determination to excel in his chosen field. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work experiences have made him become more efficient and resourceful.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
McDonalds - Case Study Example Beefs are not allowed in India for the Hindus. Indonesian prefer to eat more rice and rice based foods. America is the heartland for McDonald's with 50% of global sales. Europe has one third of global sale and is catching up fast, with 39% of global earnings. McDonald's has a presence in 40 European countries though 65% of European earnings come from the Big Three France, Germany and Britain. France is first by profits, with Germany second and Britain third. Russia is the market with the strongest growth with only about 200 McDonald's outlets. It is the group's most profitable market worldwide in operating income per restaurant. Global consumption for burgers and fries made sales at McDonald's soar high in 2007. The company had 2007 sales up 9% year-on-year to $22.8bn($20.5 billion in 2005). Revenue in 2005, $5bn and net profit$2.26bn in 2005. Operating income fell 12% to $3.9b.Europe in 2007 over 2006 result, with sales up 7.5% year-on-year, contributed operating income of $2.13bn. There was disappointment over the fall of sale and operating income of the company resulting in drop in share price of McDonald's. McDonald has three major problems in Europe from where it gets its one third of its revenue. The beef crisis, which was supposed to create brain damage and foot and mouth disease, haunted the company's food business badly. This caused the reduction in consumption of McDonald's food by 60% in Germany and also in other European countries. This problem is now subsiding. This is a big problem because it concerns with health of human being, which is very sensitive matter. Weakening euro that hampered the sale of US products in terms of dollar causes the second problem. Weak euro reduced the dollar value of company sale in Europe. This is an economic problem a multinational company with thousands of outlets abroad will often face this problem because cross currency fluctuations. Third important problem mentioned later in this paper also is about the unhealth food by fast centres in general and by McDonald's in particular. The oily and fatty food damaged health but youths run after it. There is campaign all over the world against fast foods to distract students from them. Even Pricne Charls had riaed voice against it.The solution is recommende later in this paper. Supply strategy The company adopted the common strategy of opening more and more outlets in a country or in a city to increase its turnover. This made the supply side stronger to meet the growing demand of McDonald's food. The company also allowed the local outlet to change in the ingredients in the product to suit the local taste and menus. The company did not prefer the strategy to squeeze more out of the existing outlets but recently it has given green signal to bring changes to suit the local tastes. This strategy will increase the sales per restaurants and make the outlet organically stronger. Certain strategic changes in some restaurants with new interiors and new welcome logos of McDonald were made to attract new customers who look for changes. New McCafes' coffee shop chain has been started for serving the coffee lovers with special
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Status and the norms and values of Hipsters - Research Paper Example Research questions i) Is subculture still relevant in the society of today? ii) How does subculture existence in the society help in society building? iii) Is the subculture today the same as it was in the yester years? iv) Do people still identify with the subcultures? v) Why would the society still need subcultures? Research hypothesis HO: Subculture is still very relevant to the society of today and its role cannot be overlooked. HA: Subculture is not relevant to the society today and its role can be overlooked Literature review In each and every society there exists a subculture to which different people belong to. A subculture can be categorized as a group of individuals that share similar unique behavior and beliefs which make them unique. This groups allow for people to congregate and share very many things under the guidance of set principles and norms. Their beliefs and behaviours are guided by a certain code to which they tow and adhere to. Share of so much in common within a subculture only serves to foster peace and unity as well as love and understanding within the subculture members. Subcultures also give people a sense of identity and belonging as individuals from a certain subculture can identify themselves with subculture to which they belong. ... Although crucial to the existence of the people, it cannot be ignored that the existence of subcultures also comes along with its challenges which range from tribalism, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, narrow mindedness, hatred and a wide range of many other negative prejudice. Therefore in identifying with this groups and choosing what subculture to belong to or identify with, careful consideration needs to be taken so that the need to identify with a group does not bring about unfair judgement and discrimination amongst people that have existed so peacefully before. An individual can belong to several subcultures and it can allow them to identify with these cultures but it should also serve as an opportunity to foster messages of peace and unity amongst a given set of friends, community, society, nation, continent and even the entire world at large. I am a member of XXXX course at YYYY School. We are a total of 200 students currently attending this program which constitutes a subcultur e. This is because we share the same goal and adhere to several common rules which are supposed to guide our behaviours in pursuit of the same goal, which is to be excellent professionals in the field we have chosen to undertake. The set standards aply to all over us like for instance the course is supposed to take a 4 year period during which we are expected to have class sessions that is supposed to strictly be attended to. During the period we are also anticipated to be taking regularly at certain fixed intervals as well as assignment and term papers with an aim of assessing our understanding and progress during the entire period of the program undertaken. The program also has helped us the students of
Monday, September 23, 2019
Mind body issue - Essay Example One of the most important questions asked is whether the mind is part of the body or the body part of the mind. What makes the two connect or interact with each other if at all they are distinct? This also makes many wonder, which one should be in charge in case of distinctive existence. The question requires proper understanding and argumentation because every point of view has a logical explanation. The main aim is to ensure that the process of determining this will meet the main attributes of the relationship, explaining everything based on the theories put forward to explain this relationship. The mind and the body are two distinct attributes that casually interact at given times for the sake of performing bodily activities. Descartes is one of the proponents of dualism and pointed out clearly that the mind was the consciousness that existed within an individual. Unlike the brain, which was the source of the intelligence individuals possessed, the mind was an attribute that defined and determined the thought processes of a human being (Squire 20). The main reason for taking a dualistic stand is the fact that the mind has a different functionality in comparison to matter. Mind has a conscious attribute that cannot not reduced to physical attributes despite the number of times studies are conducted on it. A proper organization of matter allows for emergence of mental properties (Kim 40). The mind will only react to that which it sees as appropriately connected to the way it operates. This means that the mind will not come to full action when it perceives something is not okay. When someone is sick, the body has some deficiencies. The body will not operate well and the mind will be unresponsive in that are a. For example, if one has leprosy, the body goes numb and no thought process can make that part of the body to have any form of functionality. The mind will work on
Sunday, September 22, 2019
A Short Story By OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry Essay Themes: Death and Dying: Last leaf is a short story that entails the treasury of life and the existence of faith and hope. It need to the importance of living and how we deal with the hindrances we battle through our life story. It is a moving story across the traps that come across us in the most significant parts of our lives, the value of life is the centerpiece of story, where all the things go back and revolveÃ¢â¬ ¦Apart of this story gives us a hint that God is the only one who knows that whether we ride on with life and chances or trail on and be drawn against the judgment, the melodramatic and picturesque setting of the story connects to the negative status of main character facing life and death subject matter. Pessimism: Johnsy the main character seems to be a very pessimistic person. She has lost the entire positive attitude in life due to her disease and she is waiting for her death. Ã¢â¬Å"Your little lady has made up her mind that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not going to get well. Has she anything on her mindÃ¢â¬ That is the first step of Jhonsy that she has made up her mind that she will die when the last leaf fall. That signifies the mental and psychological conditionn of her and is describing the theme of pessimistic. Ã¢â¬Å"She was looking out of window and counting -counting backwardsÃ¢â¬ The psychological disturbances shown by OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry in these lines as she is tired of waiting that when the last leaf falls, she will be near to death. Ã¢â¬Å"When the last one falls I must go, too.Ã¢â¬ Here in these lines Henry has showed extreme pessimism. It is the last one, said Johnsy Ã¢â¬Å"I thought it would surely fall during the night. I heard the wind. It will fall today, and I shall die at the same time.Ã¢â¬ These words literated by jonsy again show her desperate and chaotic state of mind. She has supposed the things which have no logic and waiting for her death, or waiting for the last leaf to fall. Self-Sacrifice: Mr. Behrman risks his life for Johnsy. He has sacrificed his own life, to give life to Johnsy the painting he made at the wall, shows his self sacrificing, kind and noble nature. He himself catches the pneumonia andÃ dies, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let Johnsy to die. With the character of Mr. Buhrmann, OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry is showing the sacrificing mature of a man and it gives us a message that self sacrificing is a great deed and one has to kind and gentle towards others. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Buhrmann died of pneumonia today in hospital.Ã¢â¬ Hope: Theme of hope is very nicely presented in this story. Doctor is a very optimistic person and he tries to make Johnsy realized that is she has made her mind that she will die when the last leaf fall that could be harmful for her. He told her that he can only provide her medicine and that is effective as 50 cent, the next situation is in her hand. Ã¢â¬Å"I subtract 50 percent from the curative power of medicines.Ã¢â¬ If you will get her to ask one question about the new writer styles in cloak sleeves I will promise you one-in-five chance for her, instead ofÃ¢â¬ So OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry conveys message one never let go for hope and optimist approach in life. It is out state of mind which can bring worse or better for us in our lives Ã¢â¬Å"Sadie, someday I hope to point the bay of NaplesÃ¢â¬ These lines show JohnsyÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and aspirations. It gives the picture of hope and this hope in life gives us the spirit of living in this world. Love and Friendship: In last leaf OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry describes friendship and bondage between two friends. They care and love each other, and she supports Johnsy morally when she falls ill. She proves to be great support for Johnsy and she tries her level best to bring back Johnsy towards life and in the world of optimism. Ã¢â¬Å"Dear, Dear!Ã¢â¬ said she, learning her won face down to the pillow Ã¢â¬ think of me, if you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t think of yourself. What would I do?Ã¢â¬ These lines show the effective relationship between two friends. Mr. Behrman also shows great deal of love for these girls. Although he is bit careless person but he really cared for Johnsy and his love is shown by his painting for the sake of JohnsyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. What is the theme of The Last Leaf by O Henry? The theme of this story is definitely self-sacrifice. Mr. Behrman sacraficed his own health for Johnsy. One theme of this story is that you should never judge someone by what they appear to be, but by their actions. Behrman acts fierce and aggressive, but his actions show how much he cares about Johnsy. I learned to judge people, not by their looks, but by their actions, because ultimately, actions are the things that make an impact Passion, hope and personal sacrifice. O Henry gives people hope in a quickly transforming world where big bussinesses and technology were taking over artsy New York. it is about the love between those friends
Saturday, September 21, 2019
University and Students Essay Introduction The hotel and restaurant management is the worlds largest industry and offers unrivalled opportunities for an exciting and rewarding career, though the outlook for employment in this industry is rapidly growing. With the increasing demand for highly skilled hospitality managers there has never been a better time to gain a qualification in this dynamic global industry. The Hotel and Restaurant Management program responds to this challenge with a comprehensive blend of practical and theoretical courses driven by hotel industry. The HRM curriculum combines courses in business administration, communications, quantitative studies, the humanities and the sciences, with in-depth courses in foods, foodservice systems management, hotel operations and human resource management to provide a strong base for professional success. On the recent enrollment at Laguna State Polytechnic University SPCC, students of Hotel and Restaurant Management course gradually increased, this shows that many students are giving interest in the course. Based on the previous research, the course is now being recognized as one of the top courses to be taken in the country. One of the benefits of choosing this course is that the student can learn about knowing the right managerial skills in handling a Hotel and Restaurant and also learning about the different kinds of foods that they can cook. Though this course is not only to learn about cooking, one shouldve studied culinary arts for that, but primarily to have the knowledge, skills, and the right preparations for a student to be ready to handle supervisory and management positions in hospitality management. For students to be trained under an instructor in a practical setting of a restaurant or any other similar establishment, the right mindset and attitude must be present. The performance of a student in managing even just a small business serves as an enhancement of their knowledge and skills. It works as a substantial internship for future work and management. One of the factors in choosing the course, is being chosen and going out of the country to train and learn more about the industry that they have chosen. The experience that the students gain will be a valuable asset in finding a job or taking up MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree. The importance of choosing Hotel and Restaurant Management course is it will be the building blocks for the success in the future. Students need to be more attentive and interested in this course because it will help them to be prepared for their job in the future. Through studying this course students will become an effective and competent manager in the future. They will be prepared to take what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learn here and go forward to undertake successful management roles within any of the hospitality sectors, namely, hotels, restaurants resorts and clubs. This course will enable freshmen student to advance their career to senior level so they can operate effectively at a strategic level in this increasingly competitive sector. While learning how to apply theory to complex problems, they will also gain an advanced understanding of business disciplines, including marketing, human resources, finance and operations management on an international level. Understanding how to be a leader, how to work with people and how to increase profits in hospitality businesses are all vital skills, and will be studied through the course. Special emphasis will be placed on preparing students for the trends in globalization which will be prevalent in tomorrows hospitality industry. Hotel and Restaurant students will acquire the competencies they need to be industry leaders in the competitive hotel and restaurant business environment. In order for them to achieve success in this industry, they need to have the ability to get along with all kinds of people under all kinds of conditions. the people they must deal with in this industry, guest and employees alike, vary widely in terms of education, personal experience, intelligence, business background, nationality, and personal characteristics. To succeed in the hotel industry, they must be broadminded, tolerant, understanding, and humane. It is important to keep in mind that as a future hotelier, they will regularly be dealing with many different temperaments in various situations. Any person contemplating a career in the hotel industry should be neat, have a flair for detail, and be willing to be of service to others. This last requirement is not a catchall phrase; it embodies the ability to listen attentively, have ready smile, and maintain a reserved manner. Therefore, anyone with an uncontrollable temper or an inbred shyness must try to overcome these defects to have a successful career in the hotel industry. The early development of the concern among the HRM students should not perish in their minds to defeat the stress that they are facing. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that first year of education faces a trouble that maybe foreign to their mind and new to their knowledge. In this case, these challenges could be the burden which can pull them out of the school without completing their studies, such as; the choice of college course, academic problem, students schedule and of course the environmental adjustments. But the serious case that arises in some observation is that, the focus they have in the first years of their study is not that intense. Therefore, the students must make their way to create a new passage to accelerate in their subject matter. The HRM graduates believe that this will be a broad base of management and technical skills which enable them to immediately be productive in the workplace. This study intended to state the perceived difficulties met by freshmen HRM students of LSPU and their achievements in school. Direct and indirect sources of evidence of student performance will be conducted and quantify to find out the freshmen sentiments and therefore provide the most probable solutions that will reflect effective results. Background of the Study The purpose of the study is to determine the difficulties of 1st year HRM studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the impact of college adjustments. The difficulties face by first year student found to be the choice of college course, school curriculum, schedule, socializing with new people, as well as the environmental adjustments. Based on the previous research, it found that the major difficulties face by majority of the students is choice of college course, where in many freshmen choose HRM course because they think that it is easy and a fast way to graduate because some of the mindset of the students are just to graduate and get a job like being a waiter or bartender, without thinking that the knowledge that they learned wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t put into good use and disregarding their personal interest that lead them into difficulties. This was followed by the academic problems such as difficult to understand well the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s lectures. However many first year students encounter difficulties in organizing their selves to do individual studies as they easily give into distractions. For example some first year students loiter around avoiding lectures and tutorials thus coming to school with different intensions. And also their time management involves doing the right thing at the right time. First year students in particular tend to misuse the time that is given. The difficulties to attend class as early as 7 in the morning. Managing time effortlessly can make the difference between a successful student and one who is defeated by stress. Other than that, students also faced health problems where they have difficulty in taking care of their health. One study identified the difficulties of the first year students and pointing out that the main cause of these problems is a big amount of stress during their life a student. A HRM student, actually in a broad sense, all of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ faces some series of challenges and stressors. But more likely, the HRM students are the one who are in the center of experiencing stress, especially the first year students. The stress maybe came from their friends, professors, colleagues, family or relatives, and even relationships and competition. Every day, students doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only needs a brain to do a workload and be happy to grab it fast but they also founding certain emotions in dealing with the other people and not always facing the thick pages of a book. HRM students experience stress severe enough to induce mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The source of the stress in HRM students is related in their learning experience and the programs that they enrolled into. Difficulties are a challenge to freshmen in achieving academic excellence. The continuous activities making the students accumulated the burnout behaviors which are characterized by reduction in their performance. And just like the domino effect, everything else follows. The students are destined to feel slight health failure, physical illness and emotional stress. There is also physical and psychological symptoms of stress that are present in every HRM students that suffered pressure such as irritability, inability to concentrate, insomnia, depression, muscular tension and aches, palpitations, lack of appetite and others. But actually, not all the case of a HRM student finds a negative response on the stress factor. There is the existence of the arousal that at some point increases and improves the performance. Those difficulties among first year students should be given a serious attention as a serious adjustment problem could lead to studentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to complete their studies. This study may increase the knowledge on how they can interact and motivate themselves and adapt to the changes that would be necessary for their growth and development. Theoretical Framework According to Stephen PravelÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Catastrophic Misinterpretation which explain that both educational researchers and experienced teachers develop what might be called theories of difficulty. A strong theory of difficulty identifies learners characteristic trouble spots for a particular area of instruction and includes some causal analysis of why they occur toward improved teaching and learning. The literature on learning and development offers numerous ways of understanding conceptual difficulties, as well as recognizing problems of ritualized knowledge, inert knowledge, knowledge too foreign for learners to engage it readily, and tacit knowledge, the partly unconscious nature of which poses learning challenges. In a number of studies, a strong theory of difficulty has led to improved learning. In everyday teaching, teachers response to recurrent difficulties may fall short. One not uncommon reaction is to blame the learners weaknesses and simply keep teaching in the same way. Another better reaction is to teach harderÃ¢â¬â¢; lavishing more time and attention on characteristic difficulties without any causal analysis of what makes them problematic. Most effective is to teach smarter based on a causal analysis refined through experience. The construction of informal theories of difficulty is an important part of the craft of teaching. He also discusses motivation from the perspective of contextual factors and school socialization processes that have the potential to influence student motivation and subsequent performance. In this regard, teachers instructional practices and interpersonal relationships with students are highlighted as potentially powerful factors influencing student motivation and performance. This theory will also serve as determinant of this study. Through the use of both direct and indirect sources of evidence of student performance, results from assessment guide collective actions for, among others, curricular change, better learning opportunities for students, improvement of teaching, and more effective academic support services. That is, the result which will be posted at the end of the study and shall be well classified to determine whether or not freshmen students need to worry and confused in pursuing HRM and in the end it will help them to achieve higher education and scholastic achievements, and give them an advantage in the job market and the credibility they need to achieve their career in hospitality. Coceptual Framework The researchers presented a research paradigm of the difficulties and achievements of freshmen college students of Laguna State Polytechnic University it showed the personal profile of the freshmen college students, the profile included the age, gender, civil status and family income. Factors under the difficulties by freshmen are the choice of college course, academic problem, schedule, and environmental adjustment. While in the achievement is measured by the scholastic, extra-curricular and the exposure into hospitality industry. Research Paradigm Figure 1 Achievements in School of the respondents a. Scholastic b. Extra-Curricular c. Exposure into Hospitality Industry| Independent Variable Dependent Variable RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Profile a. Age b. Gender c. Civil status d. Family IncomePerceived Difficulties of the respondents a. Choice of College Course b. Academic Problem c. Schedule d. Environmental Adjustment| The Figure 1 shows the relationship between the independent variables the dependent variable. Statement of the Problem The objective of the study is to determine the difficulties met by firstÃ year HRM students in Laguna State Polytechnic University and how they overcome it by achieving something in school. This study is significant to the students of Laguna State Polytechnic University SPCC, These may served as their guide for the readers and future researchers who will also have a relative topic, in order to provide them idea and knowledge in handling different problems encountered in hotel and restaurant course. And provide source of information and also to motivate them to improve their performance in order to achieve something in school. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Age, b. Gender, c. Civil Status and d. Family Income? 2. What are the difficulties met by first year HRM students as perceived by themselves? a. Choice of College Course, b. Academic Problem, c. Schedule and d. Environmental Adjustment? 3. What are the achievements of first year HRM students? a. Scholastic, b. Extra-Curricular and c. Exposure into Hospitality Industry? 4. Do the perceived difficulties of the first year HRM students relate significantly to their achievement? Hypothesis * There is no significant relationship between the perceived difficulties of the first year student to their achievements in school. Significance of the Study The results of this study have relevance to the following: School and administration. The findings of the study can give more information to the school and administration about the students for them to be aware in understanding the difficulties faced by the students to provide good social environment that help students easily to adjust socially that can improve their academic achievements in school. Teachers. This study will provide a better understanding about difficulties and achievements of the students and to guide them how the students be at ease to its environment and exhibits the potential of the students. Respondents. This study will encourage all HRM students, especially to the first year students to face their difficulties and learn to overcome it. And this would be a great help for them to analyze their weak point in studies and how they will optimize them. Though they suffering into difficulties they can still motivate themselves to pursue their course and received scholastic achievements. Parents. The result of this study may also serve as a guide to parents on how they will guide and help their son and daughter with regards to their difficulties and achievements in school and by understanding the anxiety felt by their children. Researchers. This study may provide necessary information in order to answer their questions and can contribute to other future researchers. Future Researcher. The findings of this study can assist them as their point of reference in continuing the study of relationship of difficulties and achievements of students in school. Scope and limitation. The coverage of this study is to determine the degree of difficulties among first year HRM students and their scholastic achievements in Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus. The covered period for this study starts from 2011 up to 2012. Research will only be focused on the perceived difficulties met by first year HRM student and their achievement in school and not from other related topics. Definition of Terms The researchers defined the terms used in the study, operationally and functionally. Achievement. The attainment of students to overcome their fears and difficulties by aiming their goals. Academic Problem. anxiety of the students related to their academic difficulties that is hard to overcome Choice of College Course. This is the choice of the incoming college students to know or to pursue what they want in the future Difficulty. this is the anxiety faced about the students about their task or fears. Environmental Adjustment. this is how the freshmen students adopt changes in their new environment Extra- Curricular. one way on how students get a good grades and this is also way of the students how to use their skills HRM. A course where the students can enhance their skills in cooking, housekeeping, bartending, hotel operation, restaurant operation and management MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree. is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study. Perception. this is how the students interpret or see different things about the same situation Schedule. Part of the class program that the student oblique to follow it Scholastic. students that adheres to a method or subtitles of the school Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE. A review of related literature and studies about the difficulties and achievements of freshmen HRM students who came from Laguna State Polytechnic University is presented in this chapter. This chapter provides information on underlying theories, guidelines and concepts of value to this research. The researchers gathered literature and studies from different authors of book from foreign and local for better understanding of the problem. Different related literature presents different content with regards the variable that is used in the study. Related Literature According to Bobby Quitan, (2006) the interpersonal influences of others, such as parents and peers, have been involved in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ aspirations to attend college. Students whose parents begin to encourage them to consider college early in their educational career are more likely to attend college. Quitan also stated that it have found that parental encouragement to attend college has a direct effect on college attendance. Students who have friends interested in attending college are more likely to pursue an undergraduate degree as well. Peers who plan to pursue a college degree positively reinforce college choice decisions. The college choice process refers to the factors that influence applicants when deciding which colleges to apply to and what factors to consider when deciding which of the colleges or universities they have been admitted to they wish to attend In order to gain a better understanding of this process, it was necessary to examine the stages that college applicants go through during the college selection process. The author said that there are three main stages of these models are predisposition, search and choice. The first stage of the college selection process in most models is predisposition. Quitan also refer to this stage as the college aspiration formation stage. This stage is characterized by students determining whether they would like to attend college. During this stage, certain background characteristics influence students. These influences include socioeconomic status, race, sex, ability, achievement, attitudes, and educational background of parents and peers. The socioeconomic status of a student can open doors of access to certain students or limit their ability to even consider attending college. Students with high socioeconomic status are more likely to go on to college than students with low socioeconomic status. The author also described three basic approaches that have been used to study the college selection process; social psychological studies, economic studies and sociological status attainment studies. All three approaches focus on decision-making influences. The first approach to the college selection process, social psychological studies, examines three main factors. The first factor incorporates the impact of the academic program that the student chooses, the social climate of the campus, the cost and location of the college, and the influence that other students have on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s college choice. The second factor is the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment of how they fit into the institution they have chosen. The third factor is the cognitive stages of college choice. The second approach includes economic studies that examine college choice. The author view college choice as an investment decision for the student. (Bobby Quitan, 2006). According to Ronan S. Estoque, Rogelyo G. Dela Cruz, Marinel Ivy P. Tan-Pichay (2006) the academic reputations of the university are factors that influence the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions to attend college. A large number of students enter their undergraduate institution undecided on an academic major. The students are attracted to institutions that can provide them with a wide variety of academic majors from which to choose. The academic reputation of an institution can also be very important to the students. They expect to acquire knowledge and skills in a particular field so they will be marketable for the jobs they want to pursue. Attending a college that has an excellent reputation for a specific academic program such as HRM or business will assist them in achieving their goal. Students also see academic reputation as leading to more job opportunities for them. Academic issues are just one group of factors that have an effect on the success of a student at a particular institution. Other factors within the institution may affect the student as well. These factors may be related to the social climate at a university and may create issues for students when selecting a college course. The author view on what generic competencies such as analytical thinking, ability and willingness to learn, self-confidence, relationship building was sought in order to compare these with the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views. The students should also be aware of the needs and be able to relate their abilities to those required by employers. If students do not see the need or importance, the likelihood of higher education institutions managing to convince students to instill these, will be difficult by enhancing their skills, competencies, personal attributes, enthusiasm, self-confidence, and knowledge that are needed in the work place, makes graduates more employable and likely to be successful in their chosen careers, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy. During this time, through the guidance of the mentor and the opportunity to actually work in a work environment the students will learn how to work with people, develop communication skills and learn how to get things done Lani Florian, (2007), said that the extracurricular activities play an important role in todays secondary education programs. When one considers the large number of activities available, one realizes the diversity of the programs. Included are athletics, publications, student government, fine arts, academic clubs, service organizations, and special interest activities. There has been a considerable amount of studying the relationship between student involvement in activities and student academic achievement. Although a positive correlation has been shown in many of these studies, there is still a fierce battle among educators concerning the need for extracurricular activities. Two positions appear to be prevalent in todays academic community. These are referred to as either the academic or developmental perspective. The academic perspective considers extracurricular activities as purely leisure and not part of the purpose of schools. The developmental perspective considers extracurricular activities necessary to the total development of the student in todays schools. Even those activities that dont require loss of classroom time are perceived to take away study time. These educators support cutting or eliminating activities for budgetary reasons. Educators who believe in the developmental perspective see activities as an extension of the educational program. Activities allow students to develop skills such as leadership, sportsmanship, self-discipline, self-confidence, and the ability to handle competitive situations. Extra-curricular activities offer an opportunity to interact in ways that allow the previously mentioned skills to blossom. The developmental minded believe that many of these skills would be impossible or very difficult to develop in a classroom setting. Participation in extracurricular activities is positively associated with many student characteristics. Participation is associated with higher levels of self-esteem. Participation is associated with lower delinquencyiabsenteeism rates the academic perspective theory considers extra-curricular activities as purely leisure and not part of the purpose of schools. Those educators that profess to the academic development theory argue that work is a deterrent to academic achievement. The author said that the participation in extracurricular activity has a small but consistently positive effect on academic achievement. Ethel Magalona, M. A. , Evelyn Salting-Sadsad, Ph. D, (2008), said that the differential scholastic achievement of students has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education. Poor academic performance is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/tested and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s educational is closely linked to their life chances, income, and well being. The interpretation of the expected or desired standard is better appreciated from the perpetual cognitive ability of the valuator of the performance. The evaluator or assessor can therefore give different interpretations depending on some factors. Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders oneÃ¢â¬â¢s educational attainment. Raising Academic Achievement narrowed the focus to what the program evaluations had to say about one set of outcomes. The current volume narrows the focus further to academic outcomes for minority students. Yet, within this academic achievement category, the focus is deep, seeking outcomes along an optimal pathway of academic achievement we wish all young people could take. It is the hope that all young people will attend school, arrive on time, go to all classes read at grade level or above do well in the sciences, mathematics and technology persist to high school graduation be appropriately identified and served for any special needs obtain good grades have access to and do well in academically challenging courses have opportunities to apply their knowledge while in school (through work-based learning or service-learning) Follow a coherent course sequence leading to postsecondary education take standardized and college entrance exams and obtain competitive scores make thoughtful guided decisions about college attendance and financing enroll in college have no need for remedial education in college sustain academic achievement and good grades in college sustain financial aid sustain college enrollment graduate from college and successfully pursue graduate/professional school degrees or fulfilling work in their chosen career. Information was sought for each level of educational achievement along this pathway. Information was also sought in the youth development literature about youth that are not in school, but there was little data on academic achievement to be found here. There was however, a great deal of writing on the topics of minority over-representation in special education, misidentification for special education, underrepresentation in gifted and talented programs, Advanced Placement, Honors and other advanced classes, and over-representation in the juvenile justice and adult penal systems. Derect Chadee, (2011), said that the social atmosphere of a campus can affect students in various ways. The author said that the students experience difficulty adjusting to an environment that is culturally different to what they have been comfortable with at their high schools. Some students experience culture shock when attending an institution where they are in the minority and they have not been accustomed to this type of atmosphere before. The author said the importance of living environment, social support and making meaningful relationship connections have on students overall adjustment to the college environment. Institutions that provide opportunities for not only academic support, but also social and personal support increase their retention rates. The author suggested that relationships and making meaningful connections are important for students to adjust to the college environment. Students who have been able to establish bonds in their new environment adjusted better than students who were isolated and not as successful in establishing new friendships and relationships. The theory of attachment has been used to explain the importance of emotional bonds and healthy adjustment. Healthy individuals tend to have secure attachments to parents, guardians, and significant others in their lives. Individuals with secure attachments tend to have an easier time transitioning to college than individuals who do not have secure attachments. Relationships with parents may change when students go to college, which can be a difficult transition for all involved, and cause additional stress and pressure on the students as they move through the developmental process and become adults. The process of adjustment can be frustrating and overwhelming for many students, leading to emotional maladjustment and depression which may, in turn, negatively affect college performance. Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, (2006). The high levels of social support buffer individuals from stress. Attachment theory has emphasized the importance of healthy emotional bonds, and students who are able to create and maintain healthy bonds with others tend to have an easier time adjusting toÃ college. Social adjustment may be just as important as academic adjustment; according to Clayton (2006) the personal adjustment and integration of the social fabric of campus life play a role at least as important as academic factors in student retention. One way of assisting students in establishing connections is to help them become involved in campus life. Student social adjustment to the college environment has been linked to student involvement in the university and has appeared to be a major factor in a students overall adjustment. The transition to college is difficult for many students and students need support and encouragement to join various organizations and participate in activities to feel like they are a part of the university community. Activities serve not only as a coping mechanism, but also have assisted students in making new friends and finding their place in the university community. Thus it is only natural that the residence halls would be ideal places to have activities for freshmen and help create a sense of connection to the university. Female students face unique problems adjusting to college. For example, there are more roles and opportunities for women than ever before; however those roles may not be acceptable to their families.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Spatial Spread Of Multinational Corporation Economics Essay As capital accumulates, the situation of the worker be his payment high or low, must grow worseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.It makes the accululation of misery a necessary condition, corresponding to the accumulation of wealth. Marx Capital Vol I. Increased movement of capital cushioned by innovation in technology and communication characteristic of contemporary globalization has transformed mode of production as well as the organization of production. This footloose character of labor and capital has given rise to what is termed as internationalization of business and international division of labor. It is in thos context that Multinational companies have become one of the major progenitors that have taken advantage of economic restructuring and the opportunities made possible by rise of regionalism, free trade facilitated by institutions such as WTO and the opening up of financial, resources and labor markets. The changing role of national governments from initiators to facilitators of growth has furthered this process. This process has had both winners and as well as losers. The economic liberalism attributes diffusion of knowledge, technology and expertise to this spatial spread. MNCs due to their sheer size are able to capture economies of scale and are also characterized by efficiency in their modus operandi. Making available numerous employment opportunities in the host country is another feature highlighted. On the other hand are the critics who are skeptical of the nature of employment generation and welfare of workers. The footloose character of capital has enabled exploitation of cheap labor placed in developing countries that has given rise to proliferation of unorganized sector without social security net. The institution of free trade policies and structural adjustment programmes by the IMF, World Bank and WTO has resulted in highly unequal integration of economies over the world. The African cycle of debt, the Latin American and East Asian crisis due to the volatility nature of financial flows has affected labor in many of these countries. (Rhys, Jenkins 2004).Primary products which constituted a major portion of the exports of LDCs faced deteriorating terms of trade. For example in 1980s under the prescription of IMF and World Bank opening of economies led to a spurt in export of coffee exports but later depressing markets due to overproduction rendering 25million coffee planters growers (Thomas, 2008). Although developing countries have managed to diversify in manufacturing and services, the nature of work has limited value added in the production chain (assembly line production). Feminization of labor characterized by long working hours and meager wages has been one of the outcomes. The scourge across the globe in search for rich renewable as well nonrenewable resources has often led displacement of people from their homes. This has often resulted in what Michael Cernea has outlines the impoverishment risk as a result of this tendency: landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, food insecurity, increased morbidty and mortality, loss of access to common property resource and services and social disarticulation. (Cernea, Michael 1985) Other issues concern around the loss of sovereignty due to their the massive profit that is pumped into the host economy due to which governments of host countries make all possible provisions to attract Multinational Corporation. Governments are losing their ability to bargain with MNCs where national government autonomy is constrained by globalization. It is argued that impact of MNC depends on the way countries, firms and citizens participate in the global economy. (Mosley 2011). Clarke (1985) points out that MNCs have a stabilizing and destabilizing effect depending on the character of corporation, the region, the nature of venture and establishment itself. The above discussion reveals the different threads to look into the impact of MNC in the wake of contemporary globalization. The following paper is an attempt to examine the impact on local spaces due to the spread of MNCs globally. I have used meaning of space not just in terms of its concrete sense but also the occupational mobility of labor which inclusive of their well being. Multinationals: A Historical Background Multinational companies have been crudely defined as having oranisational presence in two or more national jurisdictions (Buckley and Ghauri, 2000). Glenn Morgan (2004) tries to trace out the history of origin of multinational corporations beginning in the late 17th and early 18th century like the East India Trading Company. Global operations started with as they started investment abroad and setting up of subsidiaries outside the home country. Thus it started out as portfolio investment and later there was development of foreign direct Investment (FDI). Companies related to agriculture, mining and oil were the prominent one. Royal Dutch Shell, British Petroleum, Standard Oil and its successors, British amercan Tobacco, Rio Tinto, Dunlop, Lever Bros and Tate and Lyle. There was also increasing internationalization of manufacturing . eg Scottish thread manufacturer J.P coats, UK companies like Courtaulds, Nobel, Vickers and Pilkingtons. The Japanese, German and French began in late 19 80s.(Morgan:556). The FDI flows took place mainly between developed economies and also towards East Asia and Latin American economies. The flows were related to manufacturing and services. Even developing economies have entered this foray: China, India, Phillipines, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, South Africa and Egypt. Eg Chinese Lenvo that now owns the IBM pc brand, Indian Tata has taken over corus, Marcopolo (Brazilian company) that sells in more than 80 countries to name a few. (World Investment Report, 2006). China, India and Brazil are the sought after destinations for inflow of FDI (World Investment Report,2011). Nature of Operation MNCs internal operations have been described as sophisticated decision making, complex ownership strategies. Initially firms were vertically as well as horizontally integrated. However with globalization the cost of such integration became apparent and hence came the adoption of subcontracting and franchise sale. There was increase in joint venture and acquisition activities. cost effective measure was adopted in an environment of increased competition. There was establishment of a networked operation with the help of technological convergence. According to a survey conducted leading factors influencing location of industry have been shown in table 1. Table 1 Source : World Investment report 2011 This operation has resulted in global diffusion of knowledge that has enabled outsourcing, mass customization and deduplication. (Pervez and Ghari , 2000). Market servicing strategy involves ownership and location strategies where functions can be differentially localized. There has also been strategy of creating hubs that provides near markets and better source of information. If one market declines production can be switched to other markets provided the shocks affecting the national markets are independent and hub provides gains that only firms can achieve. (ibid:87). There has also been an establishment of global commodity chains buyer driven dominated by retailors and brand names; producer driven chains dominated by monopolies and Oligopolies. (Rodriguez 1986) Jill Rubbery points out the change in employment system from fordist to post fordist systems increased flexilbalisation of labor. The fordist model was characterized by standard employment contracts, hierarchical pay and standard working hours, labor acting as subordinate labor within the organization. This was established through trade union and collective organization backed by proper legislations and regulations. In case of post fordist employment structure there exists flatter hierarchies, flexible and extended working hours with diversity of employment contracts. 1980s and 1990s increased flexibility in labor hiring with the policy of hire and fire and proliferation of the informal sector. The flexible firm model (Atkinson 1984) was to provide firms with the segmentation of labor with experts in core areas given job security while those at the periphery performing unskilled jobs to be employed on flexible basis. This inturn has led to restructuring of labor supply. There has bee n an increased feminization of labor. They are segregated to specific occupations in the entire process of production as a part of flexible part time jobs. Morgan Glenn 2004, has tried to outline the approaches to study the nature of operations of MNC into hegemonic, hybridization and transnationalization. The first looked into how MNCs replicated their home based practices in the host country, the second approach looked into methods by which MNCs adopt and innovate according to host conditions, lastly translation provides an understanding of the internationalization of firms through embeddeddness in the local institutional context and standarisation and control from the headquarters. Ibid: 566. Impact on Space The critiques of spatial spread of MNC often relate it to the spread of capitalism and neoliberlaism. Works of Harvey, Sapna Banerjee Guha, Manuel Castell, dependency views tip in this direction. Harvey (2000) talks about a spatial fix referring to the over accumulation of capital along with creation of uneven spaces. In other words spatial fix refers to the restructuring of spaces in a globalised world that has resulted in uneven development. Physical displacement and Impact on livelihood of the evictees One of the notable examples in this context is the construction of industries by MNCs in the tribal belts of India in the name of development that has induced displacement. This industrial fervor has sidelined the real ends in favor of capital accumulation and double digit growth. Increased privatization is seen as a method of catching up with the developed economies by increasing efficiency un accounting the adverse impacts on local spaces. An estimated 40 million have been displaced since 1950 due to development projects of which 40% are adivasis and 25 % dalits, 75% are still awaiting compensation with deplorable plight of those without patta or land tittle. Around 70% of the total Indian population depends on agriculture for lively hood, burgeoning culture of SEZ (special economic zones) has created space on scarce land at the same time reduced occupational mobility of labor forcing him to sell his labor for meager wages in the absence of self owned means of production. Marginal and small farmers which constitute a majority of the agricultural population become helpless and tend to migrate to cities in search of jobs. Very often they are absorbed into the urban informal sector or rendered jobless reducing their sources of lively hood options. Further absence of labor legislations has forced labor to work in precarious conditions where they are subjected to hire and fire policy. Prior to SEZ act 2005 , there were 1143 units employing over 1.7 lakh persons, private investment was around Rs. 5626.24 crore, the current investment is around Rs. 83450 core employing 113426 persons. (Banerjee, 2008) There is heightened economic insecurity with displacement as the personal disposable income of the write more family is reduced. As mentioned above most rural households are engaged in agricultural activities who depend on land for livelihood. Once displaced they are left with very limited options particularly when they are not hired by the company that has displaced them un the first place. Men usually end up migrating to cities while the woman are left behind. Women in such conditions face high heightened insecurity and lack of work. Most tribals are engaged in forest related livelihood activities such as broom making, minor forest produce, bidi making, broom making and others. But with construction of factories and loss of forest area they are left with no source of income which often results in casualisation of labor. From a survey conducted in RR colony (2009) constructed by Vedanta in Jharasguda district in Orissa prior to displacement main livelihood activity was paddy cultiva tion and kitchen gardening. Displacement and loss of agricultural land has halted all agricultural practices. As a result the displaced have to buy food which becomes an extra strain on the family expenditure. Other primary activities such as domestication of animals is also limited due to neighborhood problems. Similar cases were found in another resettlement colony constructed by Bhusan at Thelkoloi, Sambalpur district of Orissa. Bidi and Broom making was no longer practiced due to absence of forest are and subsitance farming lost with acquisition. This shrinking can also be conceptualized in terms of their reduced opportunities for well being in in the face of limited choices. There is loss in terms of access to common property resources which inturn puts pressure on their budget due to limited availability of fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produce and water. There is often problem related to lack of sanitation and health . Very often resettlement colonies are built near factories spreading all harmful industrial affluents that could be a cause of serious health concern for the residents. Problem related to defecating, bathing become evident especially for women as they have to fix timings for such purpose which was the case before displacement. Communities in rural areas live in a close knit society where social networks act as support systems in offering services such as child care, economic assistance, protection, information, sickness in times of crisis and need (Parsuraman, 1993). With the displacement of the entire village community fragments with breakdown of social networks. In the absence of Resettlement and Rehabilitation act displaced groups become more vulnerable. In addition the RR policies fail to look into gender aspects coalesced with patriarchal environment further shrinks economic and social spaces of displaced women. Major multinational companies expected to engage in mining activities in India include Rio tinto (U.K), BHP (Australia), Alcan (Canada), Norsk Hydro (Norway), Meridian (Canada), Debeers (South Africa), Raytheon (USA), Phepls Dodge U.S.A. The drive for exploitation of resource rich regions by private players has wrecked havoc for the residents there most effected being the tribals. This situation is not just in India but other parts of the world where profits takes precedence over people. Ã Examples include : Dinka and Nuer in Sudan whose lands are being taken for oil mining, Mistiko lands in Nicargua for gold mining, mining on aboriginal lands in Australia, industrial plantations in tropical forests of Dayak people in Indonesia, coffee plantation on Montagards land in Vietnam, mining in North American Indian lands affecting western shohone, Quenchan Nation, Mohawk and Zuni people. (Christopher Lakra ,1999) Limiting the Opportunities of Well being of Workers. The operation of MNCs are so strategically designed as to maximize profits at the cost of worker wellbeing. This is very well apparent in International Division of Labor that many dependency theorists conceptualized. The shrinking of the opportunities and deteriorating of standard of living is well evident in the working conditions characterizing sweat shops. International Division of Labor The global labor force has increased from 2.74 to 3.21 (1999-2009) billion with 56.3 % located in Asia with the annual rate of increase of 1.6%. ; at the same time global unemployment by 30 million (Economist Sept 15, 2010). Multinationals exploit region specific characteristics of poor countries on an international scale in the name of global production. -Guha,1996. It is important to note the nature of increased flow of capital in developing economies that creates volatile conditions which directly impact labor, impact on regional disparity, its relation with the governments of host countries and nature of employment they create. Multinationals claim that host countries would be benefitted by the entry of technology, management, capital as part and parcel of economic modernization that will further create employment opportunities. Critics on the other hand claim that the State has become subservient to international capital, creating geographies of underdeveloped enclaves and exploitative division of labor. Spatial spread of MNC is determined by its manpower, resources, market and material. Accordingly their activities have been situated globally depending on the place specific opportunities that in turn has resulted in international division of labor. Chandler and Reich (1961) conceptualize the production process into three levels of activities: Level I activities that involves the decision making or the headquarters mostly situated in metropolises of parent countries, Level II activities involves the coordination of regional activities located in the metropolis of host countries and Level III activities include lowest level day to day operations situated mostly in the regions of abundant cheap labor or resource rich areas. This divison in production process has resulted in division of labor operating in different ways in the capital and labor intensive sectors. Capital intensive skilled activities get clustered in highly unequal international space. MNCs higher engineers from Asian ec onomies at half the price that they would have to pay in their home countries. As a result it decreases demand of skilled labor in their home countries while hiring skilled manpower at low rates in host countries. In labor intensive operations has given rise to increased in formalization of labor and swelling of the unorganized sector through the strategy of subcontracting. Ettlinger has termed this as a non fordist stratedgy that involves use of both the organized and unorganized labor thus creating crises in the organized sector of both the home and host country. Eg Profits of MNCs ave increased but the employment has reduced. Between 1986-89, General Electrics employment fell from 373000 t0 292,000 while its revenue increased from 42 to 55 billion dollars. AT and T reduced employment while raising its rvenue by 3 billion dollars. IBM and Fiat trudged the same path of increasing revenue but trimming jobs. Since 1980s Procter and Gamble India has diversified its activities and enga ged in subcontracting hurting the organized labor in the factories. Most products of PG were now being produced by unorganized labor in Hyderabad and Mumbai as a result of which the Kalwa Plant in Mumbai closed down in 1994 making some 300 odd workers unemployed. (ibid: 23). Harvey points out that there has been a significant increase in workers employed in the export and import oriented industriesthat has created global market for labor where countries compete for cheap labor and global competition that has further pushed down wages. With this has come an increase human rights violations with poor woring conditions in areas of subcontracting. Labour Conditions within this Multinational operation. More than 70 workers were found wrking in virtual slave like condtions, behind barbed wire fences, producing million dollars worth garments for retailers ike Neiman Marcus, Filenes and Montomery Ward. (New York Times, 1995) Violation of labor rights takes place in the form of longer working hours, poor working conditions that has negative impact on the health and safety of workers. Reports of human rights abuse from Nike supplier factories, underpayment of wages by subcontractors in Indonesia, use of child labor in production of soccer balls in Pakistan, exposure of workers to dangerous chemicals in China and Vietnam. (Mosley2011). Such sweat shop like conditions are present across the globe and women workers are worse treated. This has also resulted in increased illegal trafficking of women; in a bid to escape poverty in home countries but in turn become slaves in such sweat shops. Eg trafficking of Thai women to Japan as cheap labors and are forced to work without pay till they have repaid their debts. (Human Rights watch, 2000 ). In central and South America similar sweat shops are present. In 2000 Bolivian girls were rescued out of textile factories in Buenos where they were being subjected to slave like conditions, underfed, working 19 hours and abused often. Guatemala coffee growers working on starbucks coffee plantations are underpaid. (ibid) Wal Mart has been accused for underpayment and poor working conditions in Chinese factories. Workers are paid a paltry $.13 an hour) (China Daily,2009). Thus, neither the U.S. government nor consumers are able to discern how bad the conditions really are. The Gap produces clothing in six factories in. cases where workers are paid as low as $.11 per hour and in Honduros Gap workers have to undergo pregnancy tests and work overtime making $4.00 a day. (Global Exchange 2000). William .P.Blade (1987) points out the problem for developing countries may not arise because MNCs are institutions of capital accumulation but when capital is diverted away from host countries. There has been increase in flow of capital towards developing countries since 1970s propelled by technological advancement and neoliberal policies. According to Tinbergen report MNCs extract 50-100 billion dollars from developing coutries annually. (Guha, 1990). A notable example in this case would be the impact of financial crisis on the Asias labor market. (Hyun et al, 2010). Exports have played a major role in the Asian success. Source: World Trade Organization Data Base, 2008 In 2008 as consumer demand in developed economies plunged Asias exports fell sharply. China 25%, Thailand 25%, Indonesia, Malaysia and Phillipines to 26-32%. As a result many firms resorted to cutting back productions through closures effecting labor and remittances flow that are major sources of income for poor households in developing countries 11% Tonga, 11 % in Phillipines and 5-10% in Bangaldesh, Srilanka, Vietnam and Mongolia. Decline in Exports of Asian Economies Source: ibid FDI that accounts for major share of the gross fixed capital formation of Asian economies also declined in 2008. FDI is expected to contract by 30%. As a result of the economic melt down employment in key export oriented sectors as part of the regional, national and global chain have shown a decline. In China 20 million have been retrenched and force to move to rural areas. There has been an increase in reverse migration and workers. In Malaysia there has been a for fold increase in the number of layoffs. In Indonesia bulk of layoffs was reported in the textile industry exceeding 2,37,000. In case of Cambodia employment in garment sector contracted by 15% , similar was the case in Thailand. Impact on Employment (Asian Economy) Source:ibid The largest change in the percentage of Unemployed has been Singapore followed by Japan and Korea. Casual workers have been the worst effected as it is easier to lay them off in absence of proper legislations as well as absence of social security nets. This has also led to shrinking of labor market for the youths as the large number of unemployed chase for scarce jobs. Many firms are also resorting to unpaid leave however such have a negative impact on those who donot enjoy employment benefits. More and more workers are thus getting absorbed into unorganized sectors. In Indonesia the numbers in the unorganized sector swelled by 7.3% as compared to the organized sector 1.4%. in Thailand the increase was 3.2% in own account workers and 3.3% for contributing family workers while the organized employment grew only by 0.6%. The result of falling incomes has resulted in rise in poverty. More than 52 million workers live just 10% above the poverty line ($1.25 per day) while more than 40 million live above 20% above that line. (ILO, 2008). In times crises poor households often cut back on expenditures on health and education, there has also been an increase in child labor as families resort to such alternatives. The number of workers in the unorganized sector in Asian region could range between 1.1 1.2 billion (2009 figures). Decline in Exports of Asian and African LDCs ILO Report, 2011 The above table reveals that merchandise exports for African and Asian LDCs slumped post 2008. Despite recovery the unemployment trends have persisted both the African and Asian countries. (table below) In both regions female labor has been more affected for Africa 7.5% and Asia 4.2% as compared to 6.3% and 3.9%. Employment in Asian and African LDCs Source : ibid Role of the state In this entire discussion of operation of global processes one cannot escape mentioning the role of State and its response. The spatial spread of MNCs also depends on the policy of the host countries and the investment friendly environment. It is impossible for an economy to remain isolated from the rest in this era of globalized world even though the terms of engagement may not be equal. Political economy of the world has created such conditions where governments of host countries are losing out in the bargaining process with the MNCs. During the era of import substitution and protectionist policies state exercised upper hand over the bargaining process to channelize the benefits of private investment to serve development objectives. Contemporary globalization and the push for neoliberal agenda has transformed the state from a initiator to facilitator of development. Haslam 2009, outlines three approaches to study the relationship between state and MNCs : the irrelevance of bargaining, displacement of bargaining and maximization of bargaining. The irrelevance of bargaining implies that the state and MNCs no longer share a conflictual relationship but rather a cooperative one. This can be seen in the adoption of more neoliberal policies and realizing the role of private players in promoting growth. The second approach talks about the displacement of bargaining from state firm towards between states during bilateral and multilateral trade where states protect the interest of the firms. Maximization approach points towards increasing bargaining power of MNCs or constraints on ability of the state to act. In Argentina till 1990 private players were virtually absent and mining was state activity, however Argentina abandoned the state led model with passing of huge legislative reforms in 1993. Government of Catamarca province tried to increase royalties from Bajo Dela Alumbrera project (private mining company) but met with resistance. The federal government fearing loss of investment sided with the mining company. In Chile change in power in 1973 led to privatization but it is only in 1 990s that Chile experienced a mining boom. There was a proposal to increase taxes but was here again it was met with stiff resistance and government had to abandon the proposal. (Haslam, 2007) Lenway and Murthy (1994) on the other hand see the state as a strategist making choices between : authority v/s market, communitarinism v/s individualism, political v/s economic objectives and equity v/s efficiency. (Pervez and Buckley 2000) This reveals that ability of state to bargain is highly constrained. Very often governments of host countries themselves facilitate this process. for eg In Korea labor reform introduced in 1996 that in away allowed casualization of labor along with hire and fire policy. The reaction of this legalization was massive unemployment since 1966 (Tat Yan Kong, 2006). Labor market in Taiwan resulted increased competition among workers as 42 state owned enterprise were privatized. This effort of labor market liberalization falling of employment from 3.1 to 2.3%. In Vietnam introduction of Doi Moi syatem caused labor restructuring due to privatization leaving 1 million workers in the state sector unemployed between 1988 -1992. The educational gap further s egmented the labor where the educated entered the state sctors and the less educated ended up in casual employment. Women were the hardest hit as work participation among women to be very high (It was 74% in 1989 that came down to 60% in 1996). They were forces to enter insecure jobs with loss of employment benefits such as maternity leave and child care provisions. ( Oudin, Xavier, 2004 ). Conclusion Given the shrinking spaces in terms of well being of workers and spatial spread of MNC under conditions of increased global competition that is out to utilize cheap labor; weaker state capacity and poor implementation of labor legislations are major reasons for deplorable condition of workers. This is evident from the fact that very few MNCs consider labor regulations as an obstacle towards investment in developing countries. The prescription usually advised is a step towards improving these conditions : firstly to recognize informal sector and the various forms of jobs that come under it. Secondly there is a need to improve social security benefits of workers more than increasing productivity in such activities that would improve their standard of living. There is also an argument that legislation in developing countries are stricter but without proper employee protection. Minimum wages is one of the tools used but it must also be noted that minimum wage legislation compliance, the penalties for non adherence, whether covering the informal sector etc. employment effect of minimum wage legislation can actually exacerbate unorganized sector employment while having a negative impact on the organized work force as employers look more towards cost cutting. Thus there needs to be more robust alternatives in the form of social security nets cushioned with minimum wages and more importantly unorganized sector must be included. This will thus mitigate shock to labor sector in terms of crises. With regard with the issue of displacement due to construction of setting up of extractive industry there needs be proper facilities provided post displacement to the evictees. Apart from compensation proper training facilities, employment facilities in the factory as well as proper resettlement colony with provision of al basic necessity must be provided. Here the role of the state must come in to ensure that such benefits and compensation are provided. The above discussion reveals the multitude problems emerging due to increased privatization where the state also becomes a business partner rather than placing welfare as a priority. However solutions to such issues are not easy and requires further study the area of MNC State relationship in a globalized world. Globalization is a process that one cannot choose to escape; unequal processes such as this spatial spread are a part of it. Perhaps a better approach towards examining the process would be to understand the global structure of inequalities in which LDCs are embedded into, whether structural adjustment is actually required? Whether receipt of loans from world Bank is worth succumbing to debt cycle ? if there is a need for setting up of large scale industries ta such massive rate? These questions do not have easy answers but still need to be probed as technical fixes are necessary but not sufficient.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
In Jack London's book, The Call of the Wild, he symbolizes many things in the book. Buck, gold sacks, Mercedes, and others are looked on as symbolic. In this essay, you will find out what these items symbolize. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The main character in the book is Buck, a half St. Bernard, half Scotch shepherd dog. In the story, he is betrayed by someone he trusts and is thrown into a harsh world. A world where you must work or be discarded. He adapts to the harsh environment, and soon enough becomes the leader of a wolf pack. Here London makes Buck a symbol of one that reaches full potential. Instead of lying around and doing nothing, he learns to work in a way he doesn't know too well about. He learns to fight and/or steal his food, if he didn't , he would have starved to death. That is why Buck is portrayed as one who achieves full potential. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mercedes portrays the absolute opposite to Buck. She represents all that is weak in a civilized society. She cannot live without her precious belongings like her clothes. A suitcase of clothes would have been suitable for the trip, but she cannot part with her clothes, so she brings almost all of them. She doesn't know how to walk. When Charles and Hal ask her to get off the sled and hike along, she refuses and has to be carried off and dropped. When Charles and Hal set up camp, they have to go back and pick up Mercedes, who thinks she should be carried to Dawson City. Charles and Hal shouldn'...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The House on Mango Street The affects of an unreliable narrator in The House on Mango Street is it affects the tone, characterization, and style. There are a lot of examples of those three affects. Some of those examples are on different chapters of The House on Mango Street. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Characterization explained in the chapter called Ã¢â¬Å" Earl of Tennessee.Ã¢â¬ It is explained in the way that people say that EarlÃ¢â¬â¢s wife looks different ways when she asks different people. Esperanza says in the chapterÃ¢â¬ We never agree on what she looks likeÃ¢â¬ (pg.71). Another example of characterization can be found in the chapter calledÃ¢â¬ Sally.Ã¢â¬ In the chapter Esperanza saysÃ¢â¬ The boys at school think sheÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful...Ã¢â¬ (pg.81) Characterization is explained in this chapter in the way that Sally wears make-up to school and skirts that she pulls up, but when she goes home she washes off the make-up and pulls down her skirt so her father wonÃ¢â¬â¢t notice anything. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Tone is explained in the chapter calledÃ¢â¬ Darius and the CloudsÃ¢â¬ because a lot of people in EsperanzaÃ¢â¬â¢s school think of him as a fool. Then when one day he says something wise, something smart, people donÃ¢â¬â¢t think of him as such a fool. In the chapter Darius says,Ã¢â¬ You can fall asleep and wake up drunk on sky, and sky can keep you safe when you are sad.Ã¢â¬ (pg.33) He also says,Ã¢â¬ Here there is too much sadness and not enough sky.Ã¢â¬ (pg.33) Tone is also explained in the chapter calledÃ¢â¬ Red Clowns.Ã¢â¬ Esperanza becomes very mad with Sally because Sally left her alone and some guys come and have their way with her. Esperanza saysÃ¢â¬ Sally, you lied. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t what you said at all. What he did. Where he touched me. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it, Sally.Ã¢â¬ (pg.99) Esperanza get very emotional about what happens to her. She becomes very mad and changes her tone in the way that she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the cheerful happy girl. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Style is explained in the chapter called Ã¢â¬Å" The Monkey GardenÃ¢â¬ in the way that Ã¢â¬Å"the Monkey GardenÃ¢â¬ stands for the Edenic Bower. Esperanza and her friends love to play in the garden. Esperanza says,Ã¢â¬ This was a garden, a wonderful thing to look at in the spring.Ã¢â¬ (pg.94) The Ã¢â¬Å"The Monkey GardenÃ¢â¬ stands for the Garden of Eden.Another example of Style can be found in the chapter calledÃ¢â¬ Chanclas.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Use and develop systems that promote communication 1. Be able to address the range of communication requirement in own role 1. 1 Review the range of groups and individuals whose communication needs must be addressed in own job role. Working within Surestart I work with many groups and individuals whose communication needs must be addressed which include 16 staff members, services users to date we have 1700 families registered with Surestart. We would have a lot of communication with Health visitors regarding referrals that they have sent in and also follow up telephone calls if there is any concerns with the family. I would also have contact with social services and be asked to attend case review meetings. I would also be expected to communicate with other agencies to refer our service users on the appropriate agencies for example other children centres, counsellors, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s Aid and Hidden Harm Social worker, 1. 2 Explain how to support effective communication within own job role Effective communication and interaction play a very important role in the work of everybody that works within Surestart. I feel that how I support effective communication is by setting a good example to staff. With communication been so important for the day to day running of the centre, each staff member would be asked to write in the diary in the main office so people can know where they are (this is for the save guarding of staff if they are out of the office, lone worker policy) There is also a white board in the main office so when staff are in programmes other staff are aware of this and that the parents/baby room are booked. I would also support communication by attending staff meeting ever second week and staff are told that they must attend once a month. There is also an open door policy as sometimes there is information that staff do not want to share in a team meeting as there maybe difficulties within the team and they would like to share information on a one to one basic. 1. 3 Analyse the barriers and challenges to communication within own job role The barriers and challenges that I would face is staff working part time, staff out doing programme and also may be difficult feeling between staff members. The other barriers and challenges that I would face is staff do not take on board what you are saying to them as they feel they are right so they do not even listen to what you are trying to explain. Some people may pick you up wrong on the information you are trying to get across. 1. 4 Implement a strategy to overcome communication barriers Make sure I speak very clear, focus on what information I would like them to take on board. Supervision on a monthly basis, open door policy if anyone has a problem they can talk about it. Staff can ring and send emails at any time. The childcare supervisor meets with the childcare team every morning to make sure that all creches have enough staff and if they have any concerns regarding the children. There is also a referral meeting once a week where we discuss the referral that health visitor/social workers have send in and also to discuss and concerns we would have regarding the parents. I also send rely slips to social worker / health visitor to let them know if a home visit has been completed or if we have been unable to contact the family. Use different means of communication to meet different needs I am aware that each staff member has different learning styles, some staff like sharing information in a group and other staff like to share information in a one to one. It is also very important for me to take this on board as I do not want any member of the team feeling frustrated and ineffective. I want staff to be able to trust me and let them see that I value the work that they do. The different means of communication I use to meet different needs are. Emails are a very effective means of communication as each staff members gets the information at the same time and not second hand. Emails can be sent at any time and also printed out to file or record information that has been sent or received. Team meeting again are a very good as all staff are getting the same information and this is a nice way for other staff to meet and let everyone else know how things are going and if anyone is finding a family or child difficult then there is the support of the whole team for ideas of how to handle a situation. If anyone cannot make it then the team minutes are there to read. Telephone if I am not in the office I can still be reached on my mobile if anyone needs anything. Health visitor/Social worker would also contact me by telephone if they needed an update on a family. Staff diary in the main office this lets staff members know who is in which room and if anyone is on leave or sick or if someone has an appointment. Sign in and out sheet beside the exit door this is for safety reasons as if there was a fire in the building then I would know who is in and out Reply slips are back to the health visitors/social worker as an update for the referral they have send in. Letters to parents this is to invite them along to programmes/events. Thought-out the year I would facilitate information mornings for breastfeeding support, weaning work shop and feeding for under 5Ã¢â¬â¢s this would be to share information to welcome new service users to the Surestart. Face to face, my office is open to all staff at any time if they need to talk about anything. CU2941 Use and develop systems that promote communication 2. Be able to improve communication systems and practise support positive outcomes for individuals 2. Monitor the effectiveness of communication systems and practices. The diary in the front office if very effective for staff on home visit as we know where there are for their safety (lone worker policy). white board in the main office is very effective as this is where all staff write down their programmes so if there is any phone calls for staff the secretary knows if they are in the office or in programmes. Emails can be sent at any time and it means that the same information is been told to the staff at the same time and it is also the staffs responsible to pick up their emails. The childcare supervisor meets with the childcare staff each morning I feel that this is very effective as this is in place to make sure that all rooms are covered with their ratio, and most importantly that the needs of the children are met and if there is any problem in any of the setting it can be addressed as needed and that staff do not have to wait 2 weeks for a team meeting to discuss. One to one communication i. e. Supervision and APR, I feel that this is very important within a setting. N-Drive Ã¢â¬â this is where documents can be saved and all staff can access it. In our office we have a policy of hot desking so documents can accessed at any computer. This is also for Surestart forms and newsletters so all staff can print them out as needed. Reply slips to health visitors/social worker/other agencies Ã¢â¬â this is where I reply to any referral letter that the project receives, I would reply to the other agencies if this family had received a home visit and services offered, if I was unable to contact the family for different reasons or if the family did not want to avail of Surestart services. Phone Ã¢â¬â if I cannot be reached at any time then a message can be left for me to return there call. 2. 2 Evaluate the effectiveness of existing communication systems and practice Evaluating the effectiveness of existing communication systems and practice I am going to start with the ones I feels are the most effective. One to One Communication Ã¢â¬â I feel that this works very well within a team as some staff members do not like to speak in front of other and feel that their ideas might not be good enough. I also feel that face to face communication is very effective as some people can pick up a message wrong and take the wrong tone with an email. Supervision Ã¢â¬â this is there for staff to talk confidently with their manger I feel that this is very effective means of communication for the manger to tell how well things are going for that member of staff and for the staff member to say how they really feel about how things are going. ( I also feel that you have to have a good relationship with your staff for this to work, you have to be relaxed and friendly and staff members also have to trust you). Supervision is also very effective as this give staff clear boundaries of what is expected of them for the month a head and also make sure they are on target to achieve the targets in their APR. Team meetings Ã¢â¬â I also think this is effective as this can let everybody know how programmes are going if there is any follows to do with families in any of the programmes. If anyone is having any difficulties if any of the programmes is nice to get other ideas how to deal with it. It is also there for sharing information for the Surestart board and action for children. To let staff know what training is coming up. ARP- I have been working in a Surestart setting for the last 11 years, I feel that this is the first year I have felt that an APR has been effective like the rest of communication systems if it is not done right then it will not be effective. APR is there to set goal and targets for the year ahead, I feel this is very important for staff as they know what is expected of them for the year ahead and then this is monitored at each supervision to make sure that staff in on track with their targets. Childcare meeting every morning Ã¢â¬â I feel that this is very effective as each member of the childcare team no where they are each day and who is covering in each setting and also if any member of the childcare team is concerned about a child this is discussed each morning. Emails- I feel has pro and con. It is very effective in a way that emails can be sent at any time and is very good for all staff to receive the information at the same time. I also feels that staff can pick the tone of emails up wrong and some information is best said face to face. Reply letter to health visitors/social workers/other agencies Ã¢â¬â I feel that this is a very effective The diary in the front office Ã¢â¬â This is effective if everyone plays there part in filling it in. If someone is on training or off on A/L and forgets to fill it in then it is very hard for other staff to know where they are. N-Drive Ã¢â¬â This is effective as all the Surestart form and standard letters are on it as well as newsletters. It is also that as this is used while hot desking it means that the documents that are placed on this drive can be accessed by the whole team so if I was saving any confidential information I would also password protect it. Phone Ã¢â¬â I do feel that this is effective as if I am not available by phone or mobile then a message can also be left. 2. 3 Propose improvements to communication systems and practices to address any short comings I feel that communication can always be improved as we are only human and staff do forget to pass on messages, response to emails, and even fill in the diary in the main office. I have proposed that each desk has message pad so that all messages have to written down. I have proposed that the main diary is to be brought to the team meeting so that if anyone has any leave booked, any visits arranged or training then this can go into the diary. I would also remind everybody at team meeting about remembering to fill in the diary I have also propose that the reply slips to the health visitors/social workers be changed as I feel it could be improved. 2. 4 Lead the implementation of revised communication system and practices CU 2941 Use and develop systems that promote communication 3. Be able to improve communication systems to promote partnership working 3. 1 Use communication systems to promote partnership working The systems that we use to promote partnership working is: One to one communications Ã¢â¬â I meet with the health visitor for breastfeeding once a week. Also any of the health visitors are welcome to call in at any time. Some health visitors like to bring parents that are hard to engage into the centre to meet me to show them around the building and meet the staff. I would also have contact face to face with our families on a daily basis through programmes and also registrations. Phone call Ã¢â¬â health visitors/social services and other agencies would phone for update and regarding case review meetings. Families would also phone on a daily basis if they needed help with anything or information. Post Ã¢â¬â we post letters to the agencies if we are unable to reach the families or if they no longer wish to be involved with the service. I would also post letters and newsletter to families. Emails Ã¢â¬â some agencies like to send email as it is a faster way for them and this is ok with me as long as it is recorded. Referral reply Ã¢â¬â this is a letter drawing and signed by Surestart parents that we have permission to send it back to the health visitors to say we have been in contact and the Surestart services have been offered. Information events Ã¢â¬â this is different events for Surestart to promote their services 3. 2 Compare the effectiveness of different communications systems for partnership working I feel within waterside Surestart the systems we use are very effective. One to one communication I feel is very effective as this can reassure service users and colleagues and also outside agencies, you can focus on the goal. I can be supportive and positive to all that need it. I can also assess the services usersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and provide them with the support needed and I also feel that this builds trust and relationships. Phone call Ã¢â¬â I feel that this is a very effective way of communicating as some health visitor/social worker/other agencies need an update ASAP as they may be on their way to a review meeting. All if a member of staff is not on the office this is a good way of communicating. As my role as family support worker I be in contact with families every day on the phone, may it be they have a question or I am inviting the families to programmes or arranging home visits. Emails Ã¢â¬â This is a very effective way that I communicate in Surestart, supervision notes to be sent 3 says before supervision, team meeting are to be sent and read before the meeting. Agencies are able to send emails / newsletters Referral Response Ã¢â¬â I feel that this is a very effective way that Surestart communicate. This is send to health visitors/social workers who send in a referral this is to show the agencies that we have made contact with that family or that we have tried to contact the family and after 4 weeks we are unable to reach them. Information events Ã¢â¬â I feel that this is not really effective as we work on catchment areas and this is very hard to have an event in a general area, it has to be within the area, as we do not like to turn people away that may be interested in the service, as when agencies send in referrals they have a list of streets that is inside the catchment area and only if there is a need then they can be outside the area. Propose to improvements to communications systems for partnership working I do believe that communication within waterside Surestart has got a lot better in the last year, I feel that this has a great deal to do with our new manager, she has gained the trust and respect of the staff and in return it is a pleasure to work with. I feel that I have a great leader to follow and learn a great deal from. The only improvement that could be made is that a leaflet could be drawn up for families that are outside the catchment area so that they leave with something rather than going away with no information (this is in the process on being done). I am also assisting the upgrade of the referral response form so that families sign this form so that we have permission to hold their information and that we are allow to send the form back to the referrer. CU2941 Use and develop systems that promote communications 4. Be able to use systems for effective information management 4. 1 Explain legal and ethical tensions between maintaining confidentiality and sharing information Working with in a Surestart setting for the last 11 years, I know that confidentiality is very important. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important for agencies and services users to build a trusting relationship with me. I am very honest with the people I work with, when I am completing a registration form with parents I do tell them that their details will stay in a locked filing cabinet for 7 years, that there information is stored on a database password protected until there child/ren turn 4. I also let the parents know that under the data protection act they are able to see their file at any time. Parents also sign a form that we are able to share information with the health visitor and other agencies involved if we have any concerns regarding the child or parents. When I have taking programmes with parents I also start with group rules. Confidentiality always comes up, I always tell parents that whatever is discussed at the group I do not take it outside of the group, I can only speak for myself but that I would hope that everyone would stand by this too. I also always make it very clear to parents that if anything is discussed or disclosed any information regarding harm or danger or abuse to a child/ren then I will past this information on to my manger and the appropriate authorises. I feel that if I am honest with all the people that I work with then I do believe that you build up a trust and that by law I have to report and record all that is disclosed to me, although I did have a parent in the past that did not understand this, they felt that I was just reporting them to social services and she believed that social services where there to take her child away. This lady did not return to Surestart as what she disclosed I had to discuss with my manger. Analyse the essential features of information sharing agreements within and between organisations Under the data protection act 1998, the purpose of the act is to protect the rights and privacy of individuals and to ensure that data about them are not processed without their knowledge and are processed with their consent whenever possible, this act covers personal data held in electronic formats, manual data and relevant filing systems. Surestart has devised a form that has recently been updated by my colleagues and myself, this form is where we get service users to sign that they agree Surestart is able to keep their details in a secure place for up to seven years, and that if we had any concerns regarding the child that we would contact the appropriate service also that if there is a social worker involved that we are able to update them on any programmes they attend for case review meetings. Health visitors would send in referral form with parentÃ¢â¬â¢s consent, what happens is we then phone that family and do a home visit and in that visit we fill out the Surestart forms with the families details on it, the consent for is then signed and sent back to the health visitor to say we have completed a visit this is what programmes they would like to attend, I would also send back a form to the heath visitor if that family did not wish to avail of Surestart services or that I could not reach them. These forms are kept with the registration and filed in a locked cabinet. When I am facilitating a programme within Surestart I always do group rules, parents can put what they like on it, confidentially always comes up, I just remind parents that what happens in the group will stay in the group with me, but I can only speak for myself and not the rest of the group and I do tell them that It would not be nice to hear anyone talking bad about another parent. I do inform the parents that if there anything disclosed within the group that has caused abuse of harm to a child them I am bound by action for children policies and procedures and under the children order act 1995 to past this information on to my manger and the appropriate services, I do tell the parents that I would discuss this with them before I reported what I have heard. Demonstrate use of information management systems that meet legal and ethical requirement Under the data protection act 1998 Surestart need permission to hold data on the families that I work with, how this is doneÃ is that all parents have to sign the registration form and also the consent for their details to be stored according to action for children policies and procedures, which is that their details are stored for up to seven years, in a locked filing cabinet and up to four years on the Surestart database. Under the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s order 1995 I am bound to report anything that I have heard or seen that my or has caused harm to a child. This would also be discussed with the parent/s what information I would be passing on to my manger. This also gives the parent an opportunity to explain. The information my lead to a referral been made to social services.