Saturday, November 30, 2019
Sohrab moving to America Essay Five years have passed since Sohrab moved to America. Now he talks and lives happily with Soraya and I. He goes to school and loves running kits, just like his father did. Sohrabs relationship with me has improved a lot, we always remember all the moments I and Hassan spent together, our adventures, our fights against Assef, the kite tournament and winter time in Kabul. I love Sohrab as if he was my own son. I would always do my best to teach him what Baba had thought me once. We always talk about my childhood in BabaÃ¢â¬â¢s house and I use my experiences as an example to teach Sohrab. I tell him how BabaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship changed over the years and I would also talk about the guilt I felt because of my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. I remember once when Baba was talking with Rahim Kahn and said, if I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen the doctor pull him out of my wife with my own eyes, IÃ¢â¬â¢d never believe he is my son. We also talk about the important role Rahim Kahn played in my life, unlike Baba, he would always give me his support and understand me. I always remember Baba saying this to Rahim Kahn about me, a boy who wonÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up for himself is a boy who canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up to anything. My father was worried because the neighbourhood boys pushed me and took my toys and I never fought back. Your father would step in and fend them off. You see Sohr ab? We got home, and Baba would ask, how did Hassan get the scrape on his face? And I would answer he fell down. That is not how things are supposed to happen, you know? This was a really useful way to teach Sohrab. I also decided to tell him about the day that Baba said no matter what the mullah teaches, there is only one sin, only one. And that is theft. Every other sin is a variation of theft when you kill a man, you steal a life, you steal a wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s right to a husband, rob his children of a father. When you tell a lie, you steal someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s right to know the truth. When you cheat, you steal the right to fairness. At this precise moment I knew what I had to do. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to steal SohrabÃ¢â¬â¢s right to the truth, so I made the brave decision to tell him everything. I mentioned how jealous I was, I talked about Hassan being raped, I talked about the watch and the money, I talked about everything. I could see the confusion in Soharbs face. Actually, he was disappointed. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to say or to think. He was sad because he thought I was different. Sohrab started yelling and said he would have preferred to stay in Afghanistan. I felt so horrible. As he already did once, Sohrab stopped talking. He needed to think and reorder his thoughts in his mind. He wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat or leave his room. He wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to run kite. I just had to let him be alone, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother or try to talk to him, I just wanted to give him space. Sohrab was really sad because he knew things could have been different. Hate started to grow in his heart. I just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand how it could be possible that what happened so many years ago could heart him that much. He knew that if I had of reacted in a different way, now, his most beloved relatives would have been there with him, happy all together, being a family. We will write a custom essay sample on Sohrab moving to America specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sohrab moving to America specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sohrab moving to America specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It was almost a month and Sohrab is still continuing to lock himself in his room. He barely ate what Soraya jan made him. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help myself but to be concerned about his health. I was terrified that he might try and kill himself again. The situation continued the same until one day Soraya went into the Sohrabs room to give him his dinner and she stood there longer than she usually does. When she went out she sat on the sofa, next to me and said to me donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry, he will be fine, we just need to give him some more time, donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel guilty he also understands you, he just told me that his problem is that he is too young, and it is very difficult for him to accept this. SorayaÃ¢â¬â¢s words were very important to me. Now I felt better, and calm know that he juts needs time. She made me feel this wayÃ¢â¬ ¦. she always does. I fell asleep and when I woke up, Soharb was sitting next to me. Soraya wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t there Sohrab was. At the moment, Sohrab started to c ry and gave me something he had in his hands. I opened it and saw a kite Sohrab had made for me. On it there were some photos of the five of us; Baba, Amir, Hassan, Sohrab and Rahim Kahn. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help myself but to give Sohrab a hug and after a while he said when guilt leads to good, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what true redemption is. What astounded me was he remembered this from one of the stories I told him as Rahim Kahn once said this to me. It is hard to accept that things could have been different, and we could all be living together now, but this is my reality, this is my life and you are my family. Thanks a lot Amir agha and thank you for telling me the truth. At this exact moment Soraya came in the room again and on her face, there was a tear and in her eyes a strange but happy look. IÃ¢â¬â¢m pregnant! Soraya says. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to have a brother! Sohrab answered while a bis smile invaded his face. And I myself couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe what I was hearing.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Non-Member Countries of the United Nations Although most of the worlds 196 countries have joined forces to tackle global issues like global warming, trade policy, and human rights and humanitarian issues through joined the United Nations as U.N. member states, two countries are not members of the U.N.: Palestine and the Holy See (Vatican City). Both, however, are considered Non-member States of the United Nations, which means they have permanent invitations to participate as observers of the General Assembly and are provided free access to documents of the United Nations. Although not specifically dictated in provisions of the United Nations, the non-member permanent observer status has been recognized as a matter of practice in the U.N. since 1946 when the Swiss Government was given the status by the Secretary-General. More often than not, permanent observers later join the United Nations as full members when their independence has been recognized by more members and their governments and economy have stabilized enough to be able to provide financial, military or humanitarian support for international initiatives of the United Nations. Palestine Palestine currently operates on a Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations because of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and its subsequent fight for independence. Until such a time as the conflict is resolved, though, the United Nations cannot allow Palestine to become a full member because of a conflict of interest with Israel, which is a member state. Unlike other conflicts in the past, namely Taiwan-China, the United Nations favors a two-state resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict wherein both states emerge from the battle as independent nations under a peaceful pact. If this does happen, Palestine would almost certainly be accepted as a full member of the United Nations, though that depends on member states votes during the next General Assembly. The Holy See (Vatican City) The independent papal state of 771 people (including the Pope) was created in 1929, but they have not chosen to become part of the international organization. Still, Vatican City currently operates in the United Nations as a Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the U.N. Essentially, this just means that the Holy See- which is separate from Vatican City State - has access to all parts of the United Nations but does not get to cast a vote in the General Assembly, largely because of the Popes preference to not immediately affect international policy. The Holy See is the only fully independent nation to choose not to be a member of the United Nations. States Without Non-member Observer Status Unlike the U.N.s official permanent observers, these states are not recognized by the U.N. However, they are recognized as independent states by some of the U.N.s members. Name Recognized By Kosovo 102 U.N. member states Western Sahara 44 U.N. member states Taiwan 16 U.N. member states South Ossetia 5 U.N. member states Abkhazia 5 U.N. member states Northern Cyprus 1 U.N. member state Kosovo Kosovo declared independence from SerbiaÃ on February 17, 2008, but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the United Nations. Still, at least one member country of the U.N. recognizes Kosovo as capable of independence, though it technically still remains part of Serbia, acting as an independent province. However, Kosovo is not listed as an official non-member state of the United Nations, though it has joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which are two other international communities focused more on international economy and global trade rather than geopolitical issues. Kosovo does hope to one day join the United Nations as a full member, but political unrest in the region, as well as the ongoing United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), have kept the country from political stability to the degree required to join as a functioning member state. Today, Kosovo is recognized by 102 U.N. members. Taiwan In 1971 the Peoples Republic of China (mainland China) replaced Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) in the United Nations, and to this day the status of Taiwan remains in limbo because of political unrest between those claiming Taiwanese independence and PRCs insistence on control over the entire region. The General Assembly has not fully extended the non-member state status of Taiwan since 2012 because of this unrest. Unlike Palestine, however, the United Nations does not favor a two-state resolution and has subsequently not offered non-member status to Taiwan as to not offend the Peoples Republic of China, which is a member state. Today, Taiwan is recognized by 16 U.N. members.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Challenges To Singapores Education At the Teachers Day Rally last September, Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong outlined the challenges to our education system. A key imperative was National Education. Many Singaporeans, especially pupils and younger Singaporeans, knew little of our recent history. They did not know how we became an independent nation, how we triumphed against long odds, or how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s peaceful and prosperous Singapore came about. This ignorance will hinder our effort to develop a shared sense of nationhood. We will not acquire the right instincts to bond together as one nation, or maintain the will to survive and prosper in an uncertain world. For Singapore to thrive beyond the founder generation, we must systematically transmit these instincts and attitudes to succeeding cohorts. Through National Education, we must make these instincts and attitudes part of the cultural DNA which makes us Singaporeans. The Prime Minister set up a committee, chaired by Mr Lim Siong Guan, to study how to introduce N ational Education into our education system. The Committee has worked out a plan to do so. To take the next step forward, we need the full commitment of every teacher and principal. National Education is not just a book subject. It must appeal to both heart and mind. Unless you are personally convinced of its importance, committed to the cause and have the knowledge and passion to teach National Education competently and whole-heartedly, the plan will fail. Lessons from Other Countries Singaporeans are not unique in needing National Education. Other countries take National Education as a matter of course. Japan is a tightly-knit, cohesive and group-oriented society, with a long history and a strong sense of unique identity. Yet Japanese schools start early to teach pupils Japanese culture, values, history and geography, and even the politics and economics of Japan. As pupils get older, they also learn about the cultures and histories of other countries. In so doing, they understand even better what makes them uniquely Japanese. Japanese schools go to great lengths to instill group instincts and a sense that every student is an equal member of the group. They have strict regulations on school uniforms, school bags and shoes. Students are grouped into teams called Ã¢â¬ËhansÃ¢â¬â¢. Members of each han play together and eat together. They take turns to perform specific responsibilities, whether it is the daily cleaning of school premises or serving lunch. Academically stronger students are expected to help their weaker friends. Those who do not are ostracised. Students organise the school sports day themselves. Competition is based mainly on team events; there are few or no individual events. All students participate, including those with disabilities. Japanese schools do all this not because they believe that all students are the same in every respect or have identical abilities. But they want every student to be equally valued as a member of the group, recog nised for his strengths, and for what he can contribute to the group. And so it goes for Japanese society. In US schools, every child is taught the American heritage Ã¢â¬â George Washington, the Declaration of Independence, the US Constitution, the Civil War, and the Civil Rights movement. Students take part in community service. Learning to be a responsible citizen begins young. It is a deliberate inculcating of American political and social values and ideals, to ensure the next generation grows up with these ideas deeply ingrained. It is a process of indoctrination like any other, no less so because the children are brought up to cherish American values of individual liberty. And it is so successful that many Americans are completely convinced that American values are universal values of mankind.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Sigmund Freud Biography - Essay Example He was born in Freiberg, Moravia the present Czech Republic to Jewish parents, Jacob and Amaria Nathanson Freud. His mother was the third wife to Jacob, after being windowed twice in the previous two marriages. He was the first-born son to Amaria and later, her mother gave birth to other seven children. By virtue of being her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s first child, he was her favorite son and her influence to Sigmund played a significant role in his early childhood. While only three years old, the family relocated to Vienna in a Jew neighborhood following a financial crisis that ruined his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s thriving business. Their new location remained FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s home until a year before his death in 1939 (Ernest, 1957). The earliest influence on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s illustrious academic career was Ludwig Borne, an outstanding journalist and satirist of the 19th century. Freud performed well in his secondary schooling and his ability to master several languages was exemplary. He opted to study med icine instead of law at Vienna University. While studying at the university, he experienced racial prejudice and discrimination because of his Jewish heritage. It was in the university that Freud immersed himself in the study of neurology reaserch believing that the field would give him better financial returns than other medical specialties. However, it was not until 1885 when he met Martin Charcot, a prominent neurologist in Paris that Freud took a detour from neurological research to medical psychopathology. Through close association with him, Freud learned about hypnosis, method that Charcot used to treat patients with mental disorders. A year later, in 1886 Freud opened a private clinic and married Martha Bernays (Ernest, 1957). In 1884, Freud discovered that cocaine had analgesic properties (Gay, 1988). A self-confessed cocaine user, Freud argued that the drug had curative properties for variety of mental and physical illnesses. The following three years, he published three pa pers advocating the use of cocaine as an effective antidepressant and for treating patients addicted to morphine. However, following a reported widespread addiction to the drug from the public and his patients, using cocaine for medical purposes came under heavy criticism. Freud continued using it to alleviate his depression, but the resulting backlash from the medical fraternity prevented him from using the drug for treating the aforementioned maladies. However, cocaine remained part of his drug use in addition to heavy cigar smoking (Gay, 1988). In his private practice, Freud tried hypnosis in treatment of mental patients, but he eventually dropped from using it because it failed in most cases. During this time, he had interacted with Josef Breuer, a psychologist who treated neurotic patients with a method that entailed speaking what was disturbing them. This method particularly worked well on a patient named Anna and it came to be referred as the Ã¢â¬Ëtalking cureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gay, 1988). Sigmund Freud modified Josef BreuerÃ¢â¬â¢s technique in 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s and it later developed into psychoanalysis. According to Freud, a patient who talked out his or her problems healed because by speaking out, the strong emotions that caused mental problem were released from the unconscious mind (Jacobs, 2003). In this regard, Freud argued tha
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Adolescence developmental stages - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"At sixteen,the adolescent knows about suffering because he himself has suffered,but he barely knows that other beings also suffer.Ã¢â¬ This idea of adolescent by Jean Jacques Rousseau demonstrates that adolescent is a challenging stage in human development Problems of behavior and adjustment for a new role in the society bring about conflicts within an adolescent, the family and community in general. Looking back on my adolescent years, I find the above description to be true. In the early years of my adolescent period, I find it uncomfortable to experience the physical changes I had been undergoing that time. This change made me struggle to hide my developing breast and widening hips. I always wanted privacy when changing clothes. However, in the midst of these changes is the interesting attraction to the opposite sex. This was the time I became creative in writing love notes to my crush. The time to discussed with peers the most handsome guy in the classroom, has the lates t car, the coolest guy to be with and many other fancy things to talk about regarding the opposite sex of my same age including older males. It is the period I told lies to my parents to be out of the house just to have a look at my crush. I also became secretive to my parents as well as to my brothers and sister about my feelings towards males. As I reached middle adolescence, the more that I pay attention to how I project myself to be more attractive to males. Hairstyle and dress code appropriate for my age became important. I was always on the lookout for magazines for new looks to incorporate to my fashion style. This is because I wanted to be more popular than any other girls my age in my own little ways. Sometimes I exhibited a punk hairstyle and dressed differently alerting my parents to express distasteful of my style since they always wanted me to dress the way they like it to be. According to them, my stylish fashion is considered bizarre. Apart from this, I find it more c omfortable to be with my circle of friends than with my family since there are no objections, restrictions and rules to follow. One memorable event that comes to mind every time I flashback to my adolescent stage was when I had my first date. It was late one evening in summer along the river bank in my community; a cold wind was blowing as I stroll close to my date holding hands together, laughing, giggling and enjoying each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. Hugging and trying to experience the first kiss out of curiosity was attempted too however, all those emotional attraction ended just with an unforgettable kiss. I enjoyed those moments that I forgot the curfew time my parents set for me. When I reached home, the feeling of euphoria was suddenly changed to tormenting moments as my parents scolded me for violating such rule at an early age of barely 15. The above scenario not only prompted me to consider independency but also caused conflicts between me and my parents. Their expression of bewilderment on how I behave and the arguments confused me as to what behavior is appropriate since what I know that time was that I just want to enjoy life and that I was not stepping on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Nevertheless, I am hated by the way I live my life as a teenager. However, as the final years of my adolescence stretched, my relationship with my family improved and my attention gradually was focused on my studies as it is what I really wanted to do to have a career in the future. To understand why an adolescent behave the way they do at this period is to take into consideration theories that apply. Being attracted to the opposite sex is normal for every teenager to experience as was pointed out in FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual theory. Accordingly, adolescence is the time where there is the resurgence of sex drive that is focused at the genital regions. As a result, adolescents are fascinated with nude magazines and
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Hat Task Essay The population as of 2011 was totaled to 608,453. The majority of this population consisted of people between the ages of 15 and 44 years old. Kent County consist of mostly white persons at 83. 8%. The next larges group consists of African Americans at 10. 3% and Hispanics at 9. 9%. The median household income is $50,801, with 14. 8% of the population being listed below poverty level. The unemployment rate is at 8. 52% (2011, US Census Bureau). It is reported by adults that 13. 6% have not accessed healthcare within the past 12 months. 10. % of adults reported they have no healthcare coverage. It was also discovered that the county only has 29% of what is needed in the dental care community(2011, Michigan Department of Community Health). The second assessment piece is labeled cultural assessment. Once again this was information I collected on a County level. In Kent County there are slightly more females than males, 51% versus 49% respectively. The populations consists predominately of white Christians, while the subgroup is Roman Catholics (2011, Kent County Health Department). Obesity was noted to be on the rise due to lack of physical activity and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. More specifically 31. 3% of adults are obese, and Michigan as a whole is the 5th most obese state in the US. 19. 7% of adults reported adequate physical activity with 23. 6% stating they lived a sedentary lifestyle within the past month, and 17. 8% report they consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times a day (2011, Michigan Department of Health). African Americans voiced distrust among healthcare providers however they did support and agree for a universal healthcare system. Hispanics voiced concern for the lack of translation services due to language barriers and issues surrounding documented legal status and the difficulty this poses to accessing healthcare (2009, Michigan Department of Health). I discovered that in the area there are over 50 parks with various indoor and outdoor activities for all to enjoy. The third assessment piece is entitled neighborhood and community safety. This information was obtained from local agencies. I noted the Health Department and local hospitals are very involved in providing health services, education, and discussions for the community free of charge. The air quality for Kent County is considered poor. We have had at least 7 air pollution days per year due to fine particulate matter and ozone. The water quality in the last 5 years has been excellent. 0. 09% of public water supplies exceeded contamination levels during this time frame (2011, Kent County Health Department). The wild life in the area can cause a potential for disease, and the many surrounding lakes, rivers and streams can cause a potential for drowning. Due to the location of Kent County we risk potential severe weather events. The violent crime rate in the area was 0. 4% significantly lower than the national average. It was also noted that the local police and fire response is at or exceeds standards (2013, Kent County Sheriffs Department). The fourth assessment piece is the disaster assessment and planning status. This information was gathered on a City and County level. The disaster command is headed by the Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security loca ted in Grand Rapids. They included the requirements of National Response Plan and NIMS. I discovered they are following all federal regulations by the Department of Homeland Security. 3 County, and other regional collaborations were noted in the planning. The Kent County area is at risk most for these natural disasters; severe winter weather, thunderstorms, tornados, riverine flood, and urban flood. The are is at risk most for these other disasters; electrical failures, communication failure, intentional acts, transportation accidents, and hazardous material. The city and county provide public education through CERT classes, brochures, and coordination with school districts to relay safety information at a young age (2011, Kent County Health Department). From the information obtained above I believe that Kent County Michigan is an overall healthy community. Areas for improvement would be to increase the access to dental care and healthcare for at risk and poor underserved families, to decrease the prevalence of obesity and ensure access to healthful foods, and to establish a plan to deal with language barriers for other populations living within West Michigan. This information that I have obtained and explained above is listed below in my community genogram. The genogram highlights the pertinent information in an easy to view graph with each assessment topic listed. It discusses once again the community as a whole from population and economic status, to the cultural assessment, to the neighborhood and community safety to lastly disaster assessment and planning. It provides an overview of the community as a whole, strengths and weaknesses. The community assessment is how I feel the community is and the areas that are at risk or I feel can be improved upon. Resources: 1. ) 2011. Kent County Michigan. US Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www. uickfacts. census. gov/qfd/states/26/26081. html 2. 2013. Kent County Michigan. Kent County Health Department. Retrieved from http://www. accesskent. com/emergencymanagement. html 3. 2011. Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Michigan Department of Community Health. Retrieved from http://www. michigan. gov/brfs 4. 2009. Community Conversation Executive Summary. Michigan Department of Community He alth. Retrieved from http://www. michigan. gov/minorityhealth 5. 2013. Kent County Sheriffs Department. Retrieved from http://www. accesskent. com/lawenforcement/sherrif_emergency. htm
Thursday, November 14, 2019
When two people come together and form a relationship the question of who should wear the pants in the relationship may come to light. Should the man be the head of the relationship? But why cant the woman be the leader? My perspective on a relationship is two people going through this crazy journey we call life side by side. The servant-leadership theory supports my perspective that a leader can effectively lead by serving first his followers. The servant-leadership theory does not place the leader above the followers. It rather puts the attention of the leader on emphasizing the concerns of the followers, empathizing with them and nurturing them (Northouse, 2013). This theory focuses on the followers first. The leader must empower those he/she is serving so that the person can reach their full potential. The leader focuses on the greater good of the group. Northouse (2013) explains that Greenleaf identified 10 characteristics that are central to the development of servant-leadership. The ten characteristic include listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. Following these characteristics we can begin to explain the servant leadership role in a relationship. In order for a relationship to be successful each member will need to take on the role of servant-leader. The important aspect is that the two individuals are looking out for each other. They both are nurturing the relationship and doing what will be best for the greater good of the relationship. Listening is very important in order for this to occur. There is a difference between hearing and actively listening. When one actively listens, they can pick out the... ...thers life together. Each person now has a new family, a new group of friends, and will even create a family of their own. As a servant-leader one should encourage their partner to continue their old friendships and make new friends together in the process. This will help the relationship feel safe and connected with others. Meeting someone who youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to share every moment with is a wonderful experience. Being a leader does not mean taking charge of the other person or being bossy in order to get your way. Successful relationships are those where both individuals serve each other and know when it is appropriate to lead. Servant-leadership shows that leading side by side in order to grow together and nurture the relationship can be an effective way to lead. Reference Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Correct Question: Which of the following models uses a schematic model of the sequence of steps in a problem and the conditions and consequences of each step? Your Answer: Decision trees Correct Question: The way to build in greater flexibility in your workers is to do which of the following? Your Answer: Provide a broader range of training Incorrect Question: If the best operating level of a piece of equipment is at a rate of 400 units per hour and the actual output during an hour is 300 units, which of the following is the capacity cushion?Your Answer: 75 percentCorrect Question: The ability to rapidly and inexpensively switch production from one product to another enables what are sometimes referred to as:Your Answer: Economies of scopeCorrect Question: Capacity planning involving acquisition or disposal of fixed assets such as buildings, equipment or facilities is considered as which one of the following planning horizons?Your Answer: Long-rangeCorrect Question: Capacity planning involving hiring, layoffs, some new tooling, minor equipment purchases, and subcontracting is considered as which one of the following planning horizons?Your Answer: Intermediate rangeCorrect Question: If the actual output of a piece of equipment during an hour is 500 units and it's best operating level is at a rate of 400 units per hour, w hich of the following is the capacity utilization rate?Your Answer: 1. 25Correct Question: A process flowchart uses which of the following symbols to represent tasks or operations in a flow diagram?Your Answer: RectangleCorrect Question: A process flowchart uses symbols to represent which of the following?Your Answer: Flows of material or customersCorrect Question: According to Little's law, which of the following can be used to estimate inventory?Your Answer: Throughput rate times flow timeCorrect Question: A process flowchart uses which of the following symbols to represent a decision point in a flow diagram?Your Answer: DiamondCorrect Question: A process flowchart uses which of the following symbols to represent storage areas or queues in a flow diagram?Your Answer: Inverted triangleCorrect Question: To reduce process throughput time you might try which of the following actions?Your Answer: Change the sequence of activitiesCorrect Question: An advantage of a make-to-stock process is which of the following?Your Answer: Rapid delivery of a standard productCorrect Question: Which of the following basic types of process structures is one which equipment or work processes are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made?Your Answer: Assembly lineCorrect Question: Assume a fixed cost for a process of $15,000. The variable cost to produce each unit of product is $10 and the selling price for the finished product is $25.Which of the following is the number of units that has to be produced and sold to break-even?Your Answer: 1,000 unitsCorrect Question: Which of the following is not considered a major process flow structure?Your Answer: FabricationCorrect Question: A difference between project and continuous flow categories of process flow structures is which two of the following?Your Answer: The size of the productCorrect Question: Which of the following is not a basic type of process structure?Your Answer: Product-process matrixCorrect Question: You are hired as a consultant to decide if your client should purchase a new, highly specialized, piece of equipment. The product to be produced by this equipment is forecast to have a total worldwide demand of 15,000 units over the entire product life. The initial investment to acquire and install the equipment is $256,000. The variable cost to produce each unit will be $15 and the selling price for the finished product will be $30. Which of the following best describes the situation the firm is facing?Your Answer: The company's total margin will be less than its investment
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Fortunately, no dictionaries or bats ever came into play, and Seth and I spent a pleasant night together. He sent me off that weekend in a good mood, and during the time I was with him, it was easy to believe this might all end well. Once I began the tedious parts of travel by myself, the doubts began to set in. The ride to the airport, security, safety instructions . . . all little things in and of themselves, but each one began to weigh on me. I just couldn't see Seth moving to Las Vegas Ã¢â¬â not anytime soon, at least. That left long-distance dating, and it was hard to imagine us going through a trip like this every . . . hell, I didn't know how often. And that was another problem. What exactly did long-distance dating mean? Visits every week? Every month? Too-frequent visits meant the irritation of travel. Too few put us in danger of out-of-sight, out-of-mind complications. So, naturally, I was all worked up by the time my flight landed in Las Vegas. And strangely, I took comfort remembering Jerome's words, of all things. If Seth and I had survived the huge problem of immortal?Cmortal dating, then really, what was a two-hour plane ride compared to that? We could make this work. We had to. Ã¢â¬Å"There she is!Ã¢â¬ A familiar, booming voice startled me as I was waiting at the baggage claim. I spun around and found myself looking up at the tanned good looks of Luis, Archdemon of Las Vegas. I let him wrap me up in a giant hug, something he managed with remarkable delicacy, considering what a bear of a man he was. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you doing here?Ã¢â¬ I asked, once those muscled arms had released me. Realization hit me. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not here to pick me up, are you? I mean, don't you have people who have people to do that kind of thing?Ã¢â¬ Luis grinned at me, his dark eyes sparkling. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, but I couldn't trust an underling to pick up my favorite succubus.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, stop,Ã¢â¬ I groaned. My bag came around the carousel, but when I went for it, Luis brushed me aside and easily lifted it up. As I followed him toward the parking garage, I couldn't even begin to picture Jerome doing something like this. Ã¢â¬Å"You scoff, but most of the succubi around here bore me to tears. Hell, most of our staff here does,Ã¢â¬ Luis said. Ã¢â¬Å"You get a full range of personalities and talent levels with so many. The exceptional and the unexceptional. You, my dear, are exceptional.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You don't have to try to sweet-talk me into the job,Ã¢â¬ I said, smiling in spite of myself. Ã¢â¬Å"Not like I have a choice.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"True,Ã¢â¬ he agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"But I want you to be happy here. I want everyone who works for me carrying stories about how awesome I am. It ups my cred at the annual company conference.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jerome's trying to up his by having us beat Nanette's employees in bowling.Ã¢â¬ Luis laughed at that and led us out to a gleaming black Jaguar double-parked in the handicapped zone. Once he'd stowed my suitcase, he even went so far as to open the door for me. Before starting the car, he leaned over conspiratorially and whispered loudly, Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to shape-shift into something else, now's your chance while we're still inside.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Shape-shift into what?Ã¢â¬ He shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"You're in Vegas. Live the lifestyle. No need to resign yourself to jeans and sensible shoes. Give yourself a cocktail dress. Sequins. A corset. I mean, look at me.Ã¢â¬ Luis gestured grandly at himself, just in case it was possible to miss the gorgeous and undoubtedly custom Italian suit he was wearing. Ã¢â¬Å"It's barely noon,Ã¢â¬ I pointed out. Ã¢â¬Å"Doesn't matter. I dress like this the instant I get out of bed.Ã¢â¬ With a self-conscious look around the garage outside, I quickly shape-shifted out of my travel clothes and into a one-shoulder minidress that wrapped around me like a Grecian gown. The fabric glittered silvery when it caught the light just right. My long, light brown hair turned equally glam. Luis nodded in approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Now you're ready for the Bellagio.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Bellagio?Ã¢â¬ I asked, impressed. Ã¢â¬Å"I figured I'd be shoved off to some crappy motel ten miles from the Strip.Ã¢â¬ I amped up my makeup for good measure. Ã¢â¬Å"Well,Ã¢â¬ he said, backing the car out, Ã¢â¬Å"that is actually what the normal budget allows for when it comes to new employee visits. I was able to pull some extra funds Ã¢â¬â and dip into my own pockets Ã¢â¬â to upgrade you a bit.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You didn't have to do that,Ã¢â¬ I exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"I could have paid for my own room somewhere.Ã¢â¬ Yet, even as I said it, I knew that if accruing funds over the centuries was easy for someone like me, it was a million times easier for someone with Luis's lifespan. The car and his suit were probably bought with pocket change from his income. He waved off my concerns. Ã¢â¬Å"It's nothing. Besides, my car would probably get stolen if I parked it at one of the Ã¢â¬Ëbudget-friendly' places.Ã¢â¬ The car's readout told me the outside temperature wasn't that far off from Seattle's in December. The difference was in the light. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my God,Ã¢â¬ I said, squinting out the window. Ã¢â¬Å"I haven't seen the sun in two months.Ã¢â¬ Luis chuckled. Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, just you wait until high summer, when the temps hit triple digits. It cooks most people alive, but for someone like you, you'll love it. Hot and dry. Doesn't get below eighty at night.Ã¢â¬ I loved Seattle. Even without Seth in the picture, I could have been happy there for many, many years. But, I had to admit, my one weakness with the region was the weather. Relative to the extremes of the East Coast, Seattle was a very mild climate to live in. That meant it didn't get very anything. Not very cold, and certainly not very warm. The hot weather we got in midsummer was fleeting, and then the mildness of the winter was marred with rain and clouds. By February, I was usually ready to start consuming entire bottles of vitamin D. I'd grown up on the beaches of the Mediterranean and still missed them. Ã¢â¬Å"This is great,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"I wish I were visiting while it was warmer.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, you don't have long to wait,Ã¢â¬ he told me. Ã¢â¬Å"Another month like this, and then the temperature will start going up. You can break out your bikini by March.Ã¢â¬ I thought that might be kind of an exaggeration but returned his grin nonetheless. We were approaching the Strip and all its glory. The buildings became more flamboyant and expensive looking. Sidewalks and streets grew more crowded. Billboards advertised every form of entertainment imaginable. It was like an adult-oriented theme park. Ã¢â¬Å"You seem pretty happy here,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yup,Ã¢â¬ Luis agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"I lucked out. Not only is the place great, but I command one of the largest groups of Hellish servants in the world. When I saw your name come up, I thought, Ã¢â¬ËI've got to get her in on this.' Ã¢â¬Å" Something in his words put a crack in the rose-colored glasses I was viewing the wondrous sights around me through. Ã¢â¬Å"When my name came up?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. We get e-mails all the time about transfers, job openings, whatever. When I saw you were being moved out of Seattle, I tossed my hat into the ring.Ã¢â¬ I turned toward the side window so he couldn't see my face. Ã¢â¬Å"How long ago was that?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, I don't know. A while ago.Ã¢â¬ He chuckled. Ã¢â¬Å"You know how long these things take.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ I said, trying to keep my voice light. Ã¢â¬Å"I do.Ã¢â¬ It was exactly what Roman and I had talked about: the painstakingly long time Hell took with personnel decisions. Roman swore the circumstances surrounding this transfer were suspicious and implied a rush. Yet Luis was behaving as though everything had gone along according to perfect procedure. Was it possible there really had just been some oversight with Jerome's notification about my transfer? It was also possible, I knew, that Luis was lying. I didn't want to believe that of him, but I knew that no matter how friendly and likable he seemed, he was still a demon at the end of the day. I couldn't allow myself to be lulled into complete trust by his charm. We had a favorite saying among my friends: How can you tell if a demon is lying? His lips are moving. Ã¢â¬Å"I was surprised to be transferred at all,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"I've been happy in Seattle. Jerome said . . . well, he said it was because I was a slacker employee. That I was being moved for bad behavior.Ã¢â¬ Luis snorted and pulled into the driveway for the Bellagio. Ã¢â¬Å"He did, huh? Well, don't beat yourself up, honey. If you want a reason for them pulling you out, my guess is that it has something to do with Jerome getting himself summoned and letting nephilim and dream creatures run rampant with his succubus.Ã¢â¬ I had nothing to say to that, but fortunately, we reached the hotel's entrance and yielded the car to a valet driver who seemed familiar with Luis and his generous tips. Entering the Bellagio, I was soon awash in stimuli Ã¢â¬â color and sound and life. A lot of the people moving in and out were dressed as glamorously as us, but plenty of average Ã¢â¬Å"everydayÃ¢â¬ people walked through as well. It was a mixing of all social classes and cultures, all here and united in search of enjoyment. Equally overwhelming was the intense wave of human emotion. I didn't have any magic power to let me Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ emotion, exactly, but I was very good at reading faces and expressions. It was that same knack that had let me pick out the desperate and hopeless at the mall. This was the same, except magnified a hundred times. People swung the full gamut of hope and excitement. Some were joyous and eager, either high off of triumph or ready to risk it all for triumph to come. Others had clearly attempted it Ã¢â¬â and failed. Their faces were full of despair, disbelief at how they'd ended up in this situation and sorrow over their inability to fix things. Just as obvious were the good marks. Some guys were so blatantly trolling for a hookup that I could have propositioned them then and there. Others were ideal succubus bait, guys who had come here saying they were going to keep themselves in line Ã¢â¬â but who could easily step off the edge of temptation with the right finessing. Even with my heart tied up with Seth, I couldn't help but take in and thrive under all the admiring looks I got. I was suddenly glad I'd taken Luis up on his shape-shifting suggestion. Ã¢â¬Å"So easy,Ã¢â¬ I murmured, staring around as we waited for an elevator. Ã¢â¬Å"They're just there like . . .Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cattle?Ã¢â¬ suggested Luis. I made a face. Ã¢â¬Å"Not quite the word I wanted.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not much difference.Ã¢â¬ An elevator opened, and a cute twenty-something guy gestured me forward. I smiled winningly at him, loving the effect I had. After he exited on his floor, Luis winked at me and leaned over to whisper in my ear. Ã¢â¬Å"Easy to get used to, huh?Ã¢â¬ Our floor came next, and Luis nodded to our right when the door opened. A few steps down the hall, I realized something. Ã¢â¬Å"I have a suite?Ã¢â¬ I asked, startled. Ã¢â¬Å"That's a little much, even to make a good impression.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, well, that's what I didn't get a chance to tell you yet. You have a suite because it has more room. You have to share it with another new employee.Ã¢â¬ I nearly came screeching to a halt. Here it was, the catch in what was otherwise a sugar-coated fantasy. I envisioned myself rooming with another succubus and immediately knew I'd be seeking other accommodations. Succubi forced into close proximity put reality show drama to shame. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want to impose on anyone's privacy,Ã¢â¬ I said delicately, wondering how I could get out of this. Luis reached a door and took out a keycard. Ã¢â¬Å"Nah, the place is huge. Two bedrooms and a living room and kitchen that go on forever.Ã¢â¬ He unlocked the door and opened it. Ã¢â¬Å"You could avoid each other all weekend if you wanted to. But somehow, I don't think you will.Ã¢â¬ I was about to question that, but suddenly, there was no need. We'd stepped into a living room as expansive as Luis had promised, all sleek lines and modern furniture, colored in shades of gold and green with dark wood trim. A long window offered a sweeping view of the city, and a man stood in front of it, admiring the panorama. I couldn't see his face, and something told me that even if I could, I probably wouldn't recognize it. That didn't matter. I knew him by his immortal signature, the unique sensory markers that distinguished him from everyone else. I could scarcely believe it, even as he turned around and smiled at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Bastien?Ã¢â¬ I exclaimed.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
ADP 7-0/ADRP 7-0 Training Units and Developing Leaders Essays ADP 7-0/ADRP 7-0 Training Units and Developing Leaders Paper ADP 7-0/ADRP 7-0 Training Units and Developing Leaders Paper What is operational training domain is the training activities organizationsundertake while at home station, at maneuver combat training centers, duringjoint exercises, at mobilization centers, and while operationally deployed Whats is self-development training domain is planned, goal-oriented learning thatreinforces and expands the depth and breadth of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge base,self-awareness, and situational awareness; complements institutional andoperational learning; enhances professional competence; and meets personalobjectives. Whats is The Army principles of unit training ? Commanders and other leaders are responsible for training.? Noncommissioned officers train individuals, crews, and small teams.? Train to standard.? Train as you will fight.? Train while operating.? Train fundamentals first.? Train to develop adaptability.? Understand the operational environment.? Train to sustain.? Train to maintain.? Conduct multiechelon and concurrent training. What is Train to Standard Units always train to the standard established for each individual and collective taskWhen no standard exists, the commander establishes one and the nexthigher commander approves it. What is Train as You Will Fight Ã¢â¬Å"Train as you will fightÃ¢â¬ means training under an expected operationalenvironment for the mission. What is Train While Operating Training continues when units are deployed or when conducting daily operations. Why must you Train Fundamentals First Units at every echelon must master the fundamentals needed to accomplish theirmission. Fundamentals include basic soldiering, the Warrior Tasks, battle drills,marksmanship, fitness, and military occupational specialty proficiencies that supportthe capabilities of the unit. Why do Leaders Train to Develop Adaptability Effective leaders understand that change is inevitable in any operationalenvironment. The time to react to change can be short. Adaptability comes fromtraining under complex, changing conditions, with minimal information available tomake decisions. Why should you Understand The Operational Environment An operational environment establishes the conditions for training. The conditions are drawn from the operational variables- known as PMESII-PT What is Train to Sustain Training prepares units and individuals to be resilient. Training must prepare unitsand Soldiers for the stress of operations. Why do you Train to Maintain Units must conduct maintenance to ensure equipment is serviceable and availablefor the conduct of training and for mission accomplishment. Maintenance training is an integral part of the unit training plan. What is Conduct Multiechelon and Concurrent Training Multiechelon training is a training technique that allows for the simultaneoustraining of more than one echelon on different or complementary tasks. It optimizes training time for subordinates during higher unit training events What are the PRINCIPLES OF LEADER DEVELOPMENT ? Lead by example.? Develop subordinate leaders.? Create a learning environment for subordinate leaders.? Train leaders in the art and science of mission command.? Train to develop adaptive leaders.? Train leaders to think critically and creatively.? Train your leaders to know their subordinates and their families. What is Lead by Example Good leaders understand they are role models for others and reflect the desired leader characteristics Who will Develop Subordinate Leaders Leaders have the responsibility for developing subordinate leaders. It is one of their most important functions What is *institutional training domain? The ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s institutional training and education system, which primarily includestraining base centers and schools that provide initial training and subsequentprofessional military education for Soldiers, military leaders, and Army civilians. What is THE ROLE OF THE COMMANDER UNDERSTANDVISUALIZEDESCRIBEDIRECTLEADASSESS What is a mission-essential task represents a task a unit could perform based on its design, equipment,manning, and table of organization and equipment/table of distribution and allowances mission. A mission-essential task list is a compilation of mission-essential tasks What is MDMP MILITARY DECISIONMAKING PROCESS What are the steps of MDMP ? Step 1 Ã¢â¬â Receipt of Mission? Step 2 Ã¢â¬â Mission Analysis? Step 3 Ã¢â¬â Course of Action Development? Step 4 Ã¢â¬â Course of Action Analysis (War Game)? Step 5 Ã¢â¬â Course of Action Comparison? Step 6 Ã¢â¬â Course of Action Approval? Step 7 Ã¢â¬â Orders Production What does ADP 5-0 cover? A: Operations Process 2. Q. What does the Operations Process constitute for the Army? A: The Operations Process constitutes the ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s view on planning, preparing, executing, and assessing operations 3. Q. What does the Operations Process account for? A: It accounts for the complex, ever-changing, and uncertain nature of operations and recognizes that a military operation is foremost a human undertaking What is the ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework for Exercising Mission Command? A: The Operations Process What are the Major Command activities performed during Operations? 1.Planning2.Preparation3.Executing4.Assessing What is Planning? A: The art and science of understanding a situation, envisioning a desired future, and laying out effective ways of bringing that future about What is Preparing? A: Those activities performed by units and Soldiers to improve their ability to execute an operation What is Execution? A: Putting a plan into action by applying combat power to accomplish the mission What is Assessing? A: The continuous determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating an effect, or achieving an objective How do Commanders use the Operations Process? A: Through the support of their Staff, Commanders use the Operations Process to drive the conceptual and detailed planning necessary to understand, visualize, and describe their operational environment; make and articulate decisions; and direct, lead, and assess military operations What are the four Principles that guide the Operations Process? A: 1. Commanders drive the Operations Process 2. Apply critical and creative thinking 3. Build and maintain situational understanding4. Encourage collaboration and dialoge What happens upon completion of the initial order? A: planning continues as leaders revise the plan based on changing circumstances What is the StaffÃ¢â¬â¢s role during the Operations Process? A: to assist commanders with understanding situations, making and implementing decisions, controlling operations, and assessing progress During the Operations Process, what does Mission Command require? A: an environment of mutual trust and shared understanding among commanders, staffs, and subordinates What does it mean to Understand Something? A: to grasp its nature and significance What is an Operational Environment? A: influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander What is the CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Intent? A: clear and concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired military end state that supports mission command, provides focus to the staff, and helps subordinate and supporting commanders act to achieve the commanderÃ¢â¬â¢s desired results without further orders, even when the operation does not unfold as planned What does the Acronym CCIR stand for? A: CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Critical Information Requirements What are the two components of CCIRÃ¢â¬â¢s? A: friendly force information requirements and priority intelligence requirements What does the Acronym EEFI stand for? A: Essential Elements of Friendly Information What does the Acronym PMESII-PT stand for? A: the eight interrelated operational variables: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time What does the Acronym METT-TC stand for? A: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations What are the six Mission Variables? A: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations (METT-TC) What does the Acronym TLP stand for? A: Troop Leading Procedures (TLP) What are some of the 17 Mission Preparation Activities? 1. Continue to coordinate and conduct liaison2. Initiate information collection 3. Initiate security operations 4. Initiate troop movement 5. Initiate sustainment preparations 6. Initiate network preparations 7. Manage terrain 8. Prepare terrain 9. Conduct confirmation briefs 10. Conduct rehearsals 11. Conduct plans-to-operations transitions 12. Revise and refine the plan 13. Integrate new Soldiers and units 14. Complete task organization 15. Train 16. Perform pre-operations checks and inspections 17. Continue to build partnerships and teams When is the Force as a whole most vulnerable to surprise and enemy attack? A: during preparation What is done to minimize vulnerability during preparation? A: security operations- screen, guard, cover, area security, and local security- are essential during preparation What ensures that the right forces are in the right place, at the right time, with the right equipment and other resources ready to execute the operation? A: Effective preparation
Monday, November 4, 2019
Why have many governments found it necessary to regulate the terms, conditions and processes in the sale of insurance and financial services products - Essay Example Insurance is one among the financial system. Insurance is a part of financial system. It takes care of the financial consequences of certain specific contingencies both in case of individuals and corporate bodies. The effect of the losses o financial system is not only negative but may be disastrous and catastrophic also. It may be at micro - level or macro - level. Insurance provides financial security wherever there is an insurance policy. In fact, insurance is legally compulsory. The insurance sector has weathered terrorist attacks of previously unknown magnitude; it has suffered from a severe drop in equity markets; it is going through a prolonged period of historically low interest rates and has even suffered from major credit defaults (Rossum, 2005). But it remains in good shape. The attack on the World Trade Centre is a good example in this context. Though past performance can be relied upon to decide whether regulation is necessary or not with respect to sale of insurance and financial service products, there are certain trends which support the need for regulation. They are - The regulation of the financial system can be viewed as a particularly important case of public control over the economy (Giorgio, 2004). A plethora of theoretical motivations support the opportunity of a particularly stringent regulation for banks and other financial intermediaries. Such motivations are based on the existence of particular forms of market failure in the credit and financial sectors. Regulatory Framework A regulatory framework is most essential in order to manage any financial system as a matter of fact ((ICMR), Financial Management for Managers, 2003). The governmental regulatory framework seeks to Define avenues of investment available to business enterprises in different categories, ownership-wise and size-wise; Induce investment along certain lines by providing incentives, concessions, and reliefs; and Specify the procedure for raising funds from the financial markets. Despite the existence and sale of numerous insurance policies that cover various contingencies, the economic reason for the regulation of the insurance is yet to be defined in the financial literature. There are many rigorous arguments in favour of the regulation of insurance companies, some of which are discussed as follows (Booth, Oct,2007). First and foremost, regulation can prevent the adverse affects of information asymmetries in markets for illiquid contracts. Secondly, regulation can be used to ensure that insurers commit to contracts. In the case of life insurers these contracts may be incomplete, and it may be difficult to determine the terms of the contracts objectively; this is particularly so with U.K. with-profit contracts, for example. As discussed in the initial paragraphs of this paper, the term 'financial system' traditionally includes banking, financial and insurance segments ((ICMR), Commercial Banking, 2003). A primary objective of financial market regulation is the pursuit of macroeconomic and microeconomic stability. Safeguarding the stability of the financial system translates into macro controls over the financial exchanges, clearing houses and securities settlement systems. Earlier, many academics and practitioners have argued that, there is a definite
Saturday, November 2, 2019
War Strategy - Essay Example Krepinevich in an influential article published in 1994. As a close associate of Andrew W. Marshall, the American godfather of the RMA concept, Krepinevich's definition carried unusual weight. He explained RMA as "What is a military revolution It is what occurs when the application of new technologies into a significant number of military systems combines with innovative operational concepts and organizational adaptation in a way that fundamentally alters the character and conduct of conflict. It does so by producing a dramatic increase-often an order of magnitude or greater-in the combat potential and military effectiveness of armed forces". (1). Soviet writers actually coined the term RMA in the 1950s to describe changes in warfare wrought by nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. In identifying American military capabilities with an RMA, Soviet and then U.S. military analysts were communicating something profound about the historical importance of U.S. long-range precision strike capabilities, which were replicating the battlefield effects small nuclear weapons had on armored forces. (2). By the 1980s, security challenges in each area called for advanced conventional warfighting forces. Conventional warfighting innovations were pursued to restore deterrence credibility in Europe. A wellspring of studies and prolific media references to 'revolutionary' warfighting capabilities permeated defense planning discussions following the American military victory over Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War. Even among the more conservative analysts, defense planning discussions and military thought were dominated by an American RMA thesis. This thesis faded in the late-1990s but remains central to more recent defense transformation discussions. (4). The RMA Thesis Usually identified in hindsight, after a stunning military success, RMAs involve radical changes in the conduct of military operations and sometimes even the characterization of war-fighting. The 1990s witnessed a shift in American military thought and defense discourse as new terms and concepts were widely used to describe U.S. military forces, doctrine, and capabilities. (3). The American RMA thesis holds that a historically significant shift in U.S. military power was underway by the end of the Cold War based on the synergy of advanced intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities, automated target identification systems, information-enabled weapons, superior education and training, and joint war-fighting capabilities. Among the RMA terminology retained in U.S. defense discourse are terms like information superiority, rapid dominance, dominant battle-space knowledge, common operating pictures, decision superiority, persistent