Saturday, January 25, 2020
Theories Of Implicit And Explicit Knowledge English Language Essay The distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge is of great significance for language teaching. The theoretical models emerging from SLA research have taken up differing stances on the interface between implicit and explicit knowledge in the L2 learning process. With reference to these stances, two points of particular interest to L2 classroom instruction are: which type of knowledge contributes more effectively to learning and which type of teaching, explicit or implicit, provides more assistance to the L2 learning process. This paper discusses some of the influential theories of implicit and explicit knowledge; how the two types of knowledge contribute to learning; and the impact of theory on classroom instructional methodologies. Although both types of knowledge can refer to different aspects of language, this paper focuses particularly on grammar for two reasons: firstly due to space limitations, and secondly because of its importance to language pedagogy. The paper starts by defining the two types of knowledge and providing an overview of what the corresponding learning and teaching aspects of this knowledge entail. The theories that are then discussed have been grouped according to their stance on how the two types of knowledge interface. Along with a brief description of the theories I will also look at their implications on classroom instruction. The paper concludes by reviewing form focused instruction, which is a good example of how ideas emanating from theory have influenced teaching approaches by integrating the artificiality of learning into a more natural process. 2. Defining the implicit/explict dichotomy 2.1 Implicit knowledge, learning and instruction Implicit knowledge is commonly associated with a learners linguistic competence (Ellis, 2005a). Literature on psychology and SLA research uses several overlapping terms to refer to this knowledge, for example, unconscious knowledge, intuitive knowledge/awareness, epilinguistic behaviour, spontaneous/ automated knowledge, or procedural knowledge/rules/memory. Bialystok (1981) offers the following description of implicit knowledge: The general form in which information is represented allows us to know things intuitively without being aware of the formal properties of that knowledge. For example, we know a great deal about language that defies mental examination, but the knowledge is demonstrated by our ability to produce correct, coherent utterances. Implicit knowledge underlies the fluent language skills usually associated with native speakers (Hulstijn, 2007), who have an ability to notice grammatical errors without necessarily being able to explain the rules causing them. Ellis (1994) suggests that this knowledge can be broken down into two sub-categories: formulaic knowledge consisting of pre-fabricated chunks of language; and rule-based which consists of general and abstract structures which have been internalised. Both these sub-categories are stored unconsciously and only become apparent when the language is produced in communication (ibid). Within the brain, implicit knowledge is not restricted to one specific area, but is spread over different regions of the neocortex (Paradis, 1994). Implicit learning is the forming of implicit knowledge, and is a natural process of acquiring new knowledge unknowingly, and in such way that the knowledge is difficult to verbalise (Ellis, 1994). For example, a learner may unwittingly learn a grammatical rule while working on a meaning focused activity, or notice a structural pattern during a short-term memory task. This learning takes place automatically whenever information is processed receptively, and once the process is initiated, the learner cannot choose not to encode the input (Hulstijn, 2007). Classroom instruction is considered implicit if rules are not presented and learners are not required to attend to forms (Norris and Ortega, 2000). Examples of implicit instruction include high frequency input, interaction, and recasts (Spada, 2010). Grammatical and lexical resources are a means to an end, and considering the general consensus that development of implicit linguistic knowledge results in language acquisition, the ultimate aim of classroom instruction should be to facilitate this development (Ellis, 2005b). Even though there is still disagreement on how implicit knowledge is acquired, it is generally accepted that communicative activities play an essential role in the process; therefore communicative tasks could be an effective instructional tool when the language learning focus is on implicit knowledge (ibid). 2.2 Explicit Knowledge, learning and instruction Explicit knowledge refers to different aspects of language, including grammatical, phonological, lexical, pragmatic and socio-cultural (Ellis, 2005a). As with implicit knowledge, several overlapping terms have been used to refer to L2 explicit knowledge, for example, language/metalinguistic awareness, analysed knowledge, conscious knowledge, declarative knowledge, learned knowledge, or metagrammar. Ellis (2004: 244) gives an extended definition of explicit knowledge as: Explicit L2 knowledge is the declarative and often anomalous knowledge of the phonological, lexical, grammatical, and sociocritical features of an L2 together with the metalanguage for labelling this knowledge. It is held consistently and is learnable and verbalisable. It is typically accessed through controlled processing when L2 learners experience some kind of linguistic difficulty in the use of the L2. Learners vary in the breadth and depth of their L2 explicit knowledge. Explicit learning is a conscious, deliberate process of structuring explicit, verbalisable knowledge, which can take place while learning concepts/rules in the classroom or it may be initiated independently (Hulstijn, 2007), for example, when a learner refers to a grammar book to find the past participle of a particular verb. This type of learning requires a degree of cognitive development, therefore it is unlikely to take place in early childhood (ibid). Explicit knowledge is said to reside, or at least processed in a specific area of the brain (the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus), which is separate to the areas where implicit knowledge is stored (Ullman, 2001). Norris and Ortega suggest that explicit instruction exists along a continuum, from instruction which is more to that which is less explicit (Norris and Ortega, 2000). A deductive approach to classroom instruction is an example of a more explicit from of instruction, where rules are explained before a structure is presented in context. An example of a less explicit form is inductive instruction, here learners are asked to attend to and make metalinguistic generalisations on a form which has already been presented in context (ibid). 3. The implicit/explicit interface The contradictory claims regarding the dichotomy of implicit and explicit knowledge have focused mainly on how these two types of knowledge interface. The interface hypothesis presents three positions which argue the extent to which explicit knowledge is involved in L2 acquisition. 3.1 The non-interface position At a certain age children stop using their language to communicate and begin to look at it reflectively (Tunman and Herriman, 1984). Childrens use of explicit knowledge is considered to exhibit different levels of consciousness depending on their literacy skills, whereas their acquisition or use of implicit knowledge shows little variation (Ellis, 2004). This implies therefore, that knowledge which initiates conscious or explicit linguistic behaviour is distinct from that unconscious or implicit knowledge which characterises natural language use. Krashen (1982), Paradis (1994) and Schwartz (1993) claim that acquired and explicitly learned L2 knowledge does not interface, arguing that the former is responsible for language fluency, and the latter is only useful to monitor communicative output. Paradis (1994) also rejects the possibility of explicit knowledge converting directly into implicit knowledge, or vice versa. He suggests that since these two types of knowledge exist in neuroanatomically distinct memory systems, they can interact but transfer of knowledge from one to the other is unlikely (ibid). Krashen (1982) argues that formal teaching of grammar is unnecessary as it has no effect on language acquisition, and explicit L2 knowledge may never actually convert to implicit knowledge. In addition he suggests learners have little ability to learn grammar. Similarly, Truscott (1996) adds that the only benefits of formal grammar instruction are in preparing learners for assessment which look to measure explicit metalinguistic knowledge rather than communicative ability. In his input hypothesis Krashen states that like L1, L2 acquisition is also a natural process which occurs implicitly while a learner is exposed to comprehensible L2 input (Krashen, 1982). If learners are motivated, they will naturally follow an in-built syllabus to develop their inter-language, and using an intuitive process of trial and error, eventually acquire the L2 (Ibid). Krashens theory was the inspiration behind the natural and communicative approaches to language teaching. Counter to Krashens claims, evidence from research has shown that despite immersion in the L2, learners continue to make grammatical errors. A study by Harley and Swain (1984), for example, showed that immersion students relying purely on comprehensible input were unable to achieve high levels of language proficiency. Effect of L1 transfer is a possible reason why implicit learning processes are less effective for L2 (Ellis, 2008). Unlike a newborn infant, the L2 learners neocortex is already configured and optimised for the L1 (ibid). L2 processing and automatisation therefore occur non-optimally, as they have to rely on implicit L1 representations (ibid). A weaker form of the non-interface position suggests a possibility of implicit knowledge being transferred to explicit knowledge through conscious reflection and analysis of implicitly generated output (for example, Bialystok, 1982). Similarly, Ellis (1994) also argues for a seperateness of the two types of knowledge, he proposes a connectionist account of implicit knowledge as a complex interconnected network which is neurologically detached from explicit language knowledge. However, he suggests that the two types of knowledge may be derived from each other and that they can interact during language use (ibid: 235). 3.2 The interface position The non-interface position has been attacked both theoretically and empirically by other SLA researchers, who have addressed the role played by explicit knowledge in language acquisition. Sharwood Smith (2004), for example, uses the interface hypothesis to argue that explicit knowledge can be gained from implicit knowledge, and similarly explicit knowledge can be transformed to implicit knowledge using: contextualised communicative practice, repeated use and corrective feedback. Taking a strong interface position, the skill building theory (DeKeyser, 2003) suggests that a procedularised form of explicit knowledge is functionally equivalent to implicit knowledge when learners are given plenty of opportunities to engage in meaningful communicative practice. This practice is an essential step in proceduralising the target language for spontaneous use; hence it is important that learners are motivated to engage in this process through non-threatening feedback (Faerch, 1986). Many studies have provided empirical evidence to justify the role of explicit grammar teaching. Ellis (1994), for example, has shown that explicit language instruction leads to faster learning, and that adhering to an implicit focus on meaning fails to provide high levels of competence. However, for grammar instruction to be effective, some researchers have found that a careful selection and sequencing of rules is essential, as well as a determination of the learners linguistic readiness to accept a new grammatical item (Ellis, 1994; Fotos, 1994). The grammar translation and cognitive approaches, which were popular in the 1960s and 70s are typical examples of explicit teaching methods. These methods were influenced by the belief that an explicit knowledge of grammatical rules precedes their use (Ellis, 2008). The PPP model is another instructional approach taking an interface stance. PPP emphasis a focus on form, and stipulates that a language feature should be: explicitly presented, then practiced and finally produced in order to procedularise the feature. Swan (2005) sees PPP as a useful approach for presenting and practicing language structures under semi-controlled conditions. However, PPP is now widely seen as lacking a firm basis in SLA theory, its linearity and behaviourist nature fails to take into consideration the stages of developmental readiness that a learner goes through (Ellis, 2003); and its systematic instructional approach is unlikely to lead to acquisition of the language feature taught (Skehan, 1996). 3.3 The weak interface position A weak interface position proposed by some theorists, suggests the possibility of transferring knowledge between the implicit/explicit systems. Two popular processing models from cognitive psychology which take a weak-interface position are McLaughlins (1987) information processing model, and Andersons (1983) ACT model. The information-processing model proposes that complex behaviour evolves from simple modular processes that can be isolated and analysed independently (McLaughlin, 1987). Within this framework L2 learners use controlled processing, requiring a lot of attentional control to generate language sequences, which are then stored in short-term memory (ibid). Through repeated activation, these sequences become automatic and are transferred to long-term memory, where they can be accessed with minimal attentional control (ibid). Based on a similar viewpoint, the ACT model (Anderson, 1983), suggests that declarative knowledge (knowing that something is the case) leads to procedural knowledge (knowing how to do something). Three types of memory are defined in this framework: a working memory (similar to short-term memory), and two types of long-term memory, declarative and procedural. Anderson maintains that during learning, declarative knowledge becomes procedural and automatised, and that both types of knowledge are stored differently (ibid). A learner might start of by studying a rule (for example, Use a and an when the following word starts with a consonant or vowel, respectively), but every time a phrase containing this rule is produced or received, the phrase is stored as an instance in memory (Logan, 1988). Increasing encounters with these instances raises their activation levels to such an extent that eventually retrieving a stored instance will be quicker than applying the rule (ibid). Other versions of the weak interface position also support a possibility of knowledge transfer but set restrictions on when and how this transfer can take place. Pienemann (1989), for example, argues that learners cannot transmit knowledge between the two systems until they are ready to acquire the linguistic form. Ellis (1994) claims that explicitly teaching declarative rules can have a top-down impact on perception, leading to saliency of the taught language features. Learners are then able to notice the feature during input, and by comparing it with their output can consciously notice the gap (ibid). Explicit knowledge in this case acts as a stimulus in activating conscious awareness and the subsequent storage in long-term memory (Ellis, 2005b). The significance of explicit knowledge in this case is not so much as a contributor to acquisition, but as a detector of specific language features in the input. Ellis suggests consciousness raising (CR) as a way of setting a linguistic focus to tasks, and encouraging learner autonomy by requiring learners to derive explicit grammar rules independently (Ellis 2005b). CR raising tasks can be inductive or deductive, in the former learners are expected to induce an explicit representation of a rule, whereas in the latter the rule is provided at the beginning of the task (Ellis et al., 2003). The main aims of CR tasks are to involve learners in goal-orientated communication and to encourage the development of explicit knowledge (ibid). 4. Form focused instruction (FFI) FFI consists of a number of approaches to teaching that advocate a focus on both meaning and form (for example, Doughty and Williams, 1998; Lightbown and Spada, 1990). The distinction between the various types of FFI is that some are implicit in nature, and others are more explicit. Ellis (2001) defines FFI as a type of instruction which includes any planned or incidental instructional activity that is intended to induce language learners to pay attention to linguistic form. Long (1991) distinguishes between two types of FFI: focus on formS (FonFs) and focus on form (FonF). The former involves teaching discrete grammar points according to a synthetic syllabus leading to a preselected linguistic target (ibid). FonFs is regarded as an explicit form of FFI (Housen and Pierrard, 2005) and is more in line with the interface position. A typical example of a FonFs approach is the PPP model. FonF on the other hand is a more implicit form of FFI (ibid), and aims to overtly draw the students attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons whose overriding focus is on meaning or communication (Long, 1991: 45). FonF is based on the idea that first and second language acquisition are similar in that they both rely on exposure to comprehensible input from natural interaction (ibid). However it also takes into account important differences: that learners cannot acquire many of the grammatical aspects of language through exposure alone, and that this needs to be balanced by providing a focus on grammatical as well as communicative aspects of the second language (ibid). The instructional activities associated with the FonF approach involve a mixture of implicit and explicit techniques, for example: input enhancement where a target form is highlighted for awareness; and a structure-based task (Fotos, 2005) which requires the completion of a meaningful task u sing the target form, before the latter is explicitly taught and practiced further. Long (1991) contends that FonF instruction may be more effective than a focus on meaning (FonM) or a FonFs approach, because it is more consistent with the findings of SLA research. From a psycholinguistic perspective a FonF teaching in the classroom is justified for three main reasons: FonM may be useful in developing oral fluency, however it fails to provide high levels of linguistic or sociolinguistic competence (Ellis et al., 2003). The FonM approach is based on Krashens (1981) hypothesis which states that all that is needed to acquire a language is extensive exposure to rich comprehensible L2 input. However, while researching literature comparing instructed with uninstructed learning (FonM), Long (1991) found that instructed learning was much more effective in achieving high proficiency levels. A FonFs approach is based on the idea that classroom L2 learning is derived from cognitive processes and therefore involves the learning of a skill (Ellis et al., 2003). However empirical evidence (for example Pienemann, 1989) suggests that a FonFs approach does not guarantee that learners will develop the ability to restructure their interlanguage. Studies have shown that classroom learning follows a sequentially similar acquisition process as natural learning (Ellis et al., 2003). However, in the classroom learners may follow an inbuilt syllabus, allowing them to benefit or acquire only those aspects of FFI for which they are linguistically ready (ibid). Therefore deciding on which language feature learners are ready to acquire may pose a difficulty for FonFs instruction. A FonF instruction draws attention to the target form through a contextually meaningful communication, allowing the learners to develop their fluency and accuracy (Ellis et al., 2003). FonF is pedagogically efficient in that it can focus specifically on those language features that either need clarification or are problematic at a contextually relevant moment (ibid). FonF also gives an opportunity to learners to receive feedback in a meaningful context, allowing them to notice the gap between their interlanguage and the negative evidence provided by the feedback (ibid). Johnson (1996), in his skills building theory suggests that feedback is most useful for learners when it is presented in real operating conditions. Corrective feedback exposes learners to the correct form and encourages them to produce it themselves; leading to a possible acquisition of these forms (Ellis et al., 2003). The above discussion supports the efficacy of FonF instruction; however the effectiveness of this method in some EFL contexts is doubted. In educational contexts where teachers are obliged to follow a tightly controlled syllabus, or where class size does not permit individual feedback, a FonF instructional approach may be difficult to implement (Poole, 2005). What this suggests is that pedagogical implications of SLA studies on implicit and explicit knowledge need to be related to different learning and teaching contexts. 5. Conclusion This paper discussed some of the prominent theories that have emerged from SLA research on implicit and explicit knowledge. As well as defining the two types of knowledge, their impact on the learning process and instructional practices were also highlighted. A look at focus on form instruction showed how the ideas from different theoretical viewpoints have merged to give a teaching approach which balances both implicit and explicit learning. Although research has shown that traditional explicit grammar instruction is unlikely to lead to the implicit knowledge needed for proficiency in a language, there is still a lot of controversy regarding the best alternative (Ellis, 2006). The conflicting views on the overall role of implicit and explicit knowledge in SLA point to the complexity of the issue and suggest that a thorough understanding is still evolving. Ellis (2008) suggests that because consciousness and linguistic knowledge are so difficult to conceptualise and operationalise, improving our insight in these areas is a major challenge. In order to help gain a deeper understanding, future research needs to collaborate with developments in other disciplines such as cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience (Doughty and Long, 2003).
Friday, January 17, 2020
We talked about the destinations, accommodation and the budget for each group, because we're divided into 8 groups. The 4 groups are going to Sad and the other 4 are going to Ã¢â¬Ëlocos Norte and Sure. March 26, Second day Sir Mann told me went to De La Sale in Taft Avenue to pass his papers and after that I went to Bambina and bought some medicine for our medical kit that we will be using for our Tour. March 27, Sir Mann told me went to Magmata to meet Mr.. Carlo, he is aBusinessman and my Job is to get his full payment for the Honking Tour, I remember that guy because he gave me a tip and treat me in a high class restaurant. I think he gave me the payment and it cost around forty five thousand pesos in cash so that day I feel Anxious and when I came back in our office I took a rest because we were having a tour on the next day. May 28, I Joined the Ã¢â¬Ëlocos Holy week tour Sir Lieu San Martin and I were partner and we brought 50 Tourist or Clients.They came from different grou p so our mission is to make them friends before the Tour ends. I'm he one who's in-charge in money transactions, checking-in the tourist on their of our tour and my task for this day is to serve and remind the hotel to prepare their breakfast and to be a professional photographer because we coordinator are the one to took them pictures if they requested only. March 30 last day of our Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour, we went to Vagina heritage to buy some stuffs and shirts and after that back to Manila.WEEK 2: April 2- 8, 2013 April 2, we trainees taught to make a company email address and we made an account in slit. Com to promote some tour packages that we are offering. April 3, Sir Mann taught us how to answer phone calls and how to make a reservation for those clients asking for a tour or some promos that we are offering. April 4, Mama Promotion taught me how to deposit, withdraw and other banking transactions, the truth is I have no idea how banking transactions is processed and I sort out so me receipts and bills.April 5, Sir Ryan our Marketing specialist taught me how to make an ads and how to compute those tour price, accommodation and airline tickets that they are offering. April 6, another Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour is came so automatically we trainees are joined. We did the same thing like the last tour but this tour is the most unforgettable tour, because one of our clients sends a message to our company directly to Mr.. Mann our General Manager, the client complains are 1 . What a kind of Tour guide you have? 2. Your tour guide is making money on us. 3.The tour guide of your company is not well dressed. The complainant used other mobile number for us not to know who she/he is, by that day I don't know what to do, because I'm not expecting that would be happened. WEEK 3: April 9-12, 15, 2013 April 9, this is Holiday from Ã¢â¬Ëlocos tour we came here at manila by 2 o'clock in the ironing and by 3 o'clock in the morning we went to Lucian, Guenon for our Success in the past Holy week tour and also an incentives because almost of our clients appreciated my effort in that tour and I am very thankful to those clients.April 10, 11, 12, I did some paper works like sort out receipts, print some documents, arranged the files, books, Fliers, Directories, Posters, answer phone calls. April 15, we trainees cleaned up the whole office and put some wall designs because some unexpectedly visitors from Department of Tourism would come. WEEK 4: April 16-19, 2013 April 16, on this day we are tasked to make some research about Minor travelers and airline codes, airport codes, airport rules. We did for the whole day is to read what we searched.April 17, this is the day of our quiz I remember that is a 100 items quiz but only two questions (it's weird right) I got 96 and my co-trainee got 94 so he failed and I got passed but I'm not putting up myself I'm Just happy because I didn't expected that I will passed the quiz. April 18, we were tasked to made a tour itinerary f rom Zebu-boll-campaign, I have no idea in that place so the whole day Im focused n that task and sir and I talked one-on-one about the itinerary I made and fortunately , I passed again because I defend my answer correctly and exactly it made my confident boost.April 19, Sir Mann asked me and my co-trainee to repost all of the ads we post in Slit, the purpose of reposting those ads is to make the clients easily look for that April 22, Just the same thing I did some edit and fix some files and ads on website. April 23, Deposit those payments of the clients in the bank, sort out those receipts again, answering phone calls. April 24, Mr..Mann taught us how to speak fluently and e told me some tips and reminders for me to knew that in the future we need to become comfortable and hospitable in our clients even though our clients is not in a good mood, do paper works, answer phone calls and other matters. April 25, tomorrow would be our last day so I review those tour packages that they're offers and repost it again. April 26, taking pictures of the facilities, gathered those information that I need for the completion of my practicum report and finished my 300 hours of Journey and unforgettable experienced in Tuesday Tours and Travel. General Perception of the training
Thursday, January 9, 2020
A few weeks ago, a picture about a dead boy in the beach let us pay attention to Migration waves. Governments have to consider how to limit migration trends because they think a large number of immigrants will lead to a terrible effect on local residents. Based on this point, some countries adopted some strategies to limit migration. They reduced some benefits and increased the difficulty to immigrants. Even some governments such as Japan government refuse to people to immigrate. Even though immigrants bring some benefits, governments are still afraid of the negative impact of immigration on the following three aspects: local market, wages and social stability. However, some facts and research show the terrible effect is not significant to these parts. And immigrants also bring some benefits to local residents. A traditional viewpoint on immigration is that foreign population will have a terrible effect on native people to get fewer opportunities to find work. Some people believe imm igration will bring a huge impact on local markets because their requirements of jobs are always lower than the local residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. It means they will get more chance than local people. However, a survey from Michel J. Greenwood about US immigration shows the influence of immigration to local markets does not have appreciable effects. In this survey, he said a possible explanation about why immigrants do not influence on local people was that immigrants were not distributed inShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Immigration On The United States1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlthough, there are many different approaches in viewing the immigration reform in the United States. Immigration can be seen as a much more complex issue than just what meets the human eye. 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